Bank of England, World War I, RIIA and CFR, Opium Trade, First City
- The House of Orange and the Bank of England
- The Merchants of Death and World War I
- The Post-War World Order: RIIA and CFR
- The Opium Trade and Other Ventures
- First City and Rothschilds, Inc.
The House of Orange and the Bank of England
"The Commissioner of Public Accounts found that the Duke of Marlborough had accepted gifts amounting to some 60,000 pounds from Antonio Machado and Sir Solomon de Medina, contractors for bread and wagons for the army abroad, and 2 1/2% of all money allotted for payment of troops, some 175,000 pounds (later revised to 350,000 pounds)."
Of the five hundred original stockholders, four hundred and fifty lived in London. This was the dawn of the preeminence of the "City", now the world's leading financial center. For this reason, the Rothschilds identified their key American banks with the code word "City".
- the Duke of Devonshire (William Cavendish) who built Chatsworth; he also had signed the invitation to William to assume the throne of England; he was High Steward at Anne's Coronation in 1702, and was said to lead a profligate private life ~ (the present duke sold seven drawings in July 1984 for $9.2 million [and] the 11th Duke married Deborah Freeman-Mitford daughter of Baron Redesdale; his present brother-in-law, Baron Redesdale, is vice president of Chase Manhattan Bank)
- the Duke of Leeds, Sir Thomas Osborne, who also signed the invitation to William ~ he was lord high treasurer and had arranged the marriage of Mary. He was later impeached for receiving a large bribe to procure the charter of the East India Co. in 1691; because of his favored position at court the proceedings were never concluded, and he left one of the largest fortunes in England
- the Earl of Pembroke, (Thomas Herbert), who became the first lord of the admiralty, and later lord privy seal
- the Earl of Carnarvon, who is also Earl of Powis and Earl of Bradford
- Lord Edward Russell, created Earl of Orford 1697; he had joined the service of William in 1683, was appointed treasurer of the Navy 1689, first lord of admiralty 1696-17, and lord justice 1697-1714 (Sir Robert Walpole, the famed British leader, was created Earl of Orford in the second creation)
- William Paterson, usually credited with being the founder of the bank of England ~ he was forced out within a year
- Sir Theodore Janssen, who invested 10,000 pounds
- Dr. Hugh Chamberlen
- John Asgill, an eccentric writer and pamphleteer
- Dr. Nicholas Barbon, son of Praisegod Barebones, who started the first insurance company in Great Britain
- John Holland, a reputed Englishman who also started the Bank of Scotland in 1695
- Michael Godfrey, who died at Namur, Belgium on his way to Antwerp to establish a branch of the Bank of England ~ he was the first deputy governor of the Bank of England, and nephew of Sir Edward Godfrey, who was murdered by Titus Oakes in 1678
- Sir John Houblon and twenty members of his family were also early stockholders; Sir John became lord of the admiralty, and Lord Mayor of London; his brother James was deputy governor of the Bank of England
- Salomon de Medina, later knighted by William III
- Sir William Scawen
- Sir Gilbert Heathcote, director of Bank of England 1699-1701, and from 1723-25; he was Sheriff and later Lord Mayor of London, founded the New East India Co. in 1693; his parsimony was ridiculed by Alexander Pope in his quatrains
- Sir Charles Montague, first Earl of Halifax, and Chancellor of the Exchequer ~ the present Earl is a director of Hambros Bank
- Marquess Normandy, John Sheffield, also held the title of Duke of Buckingham ~ he is buried in Westminster Abbey
- Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, comptroller of the royal household
- Charles Chaplin
- and the philosopher, John Locke.
"Mr. M. Collet Norman, the Governor of the Bank of England, is now head and shoulders above all other British bankers. No other British banker has ever been as independent and supreme in the world of British finance as Mr. Norman is today. He has just been elected Governor for the eighth year in succession.
Before the war, no Governor was allowed to hold office for more than two years; but Mr. Norman has broken all precedents. He runs his Bank and his Treasury as well. He appears to have no associations except his employees. He gives no interviews. He leaves the British financial world wholly in the thick as to his plans and ideas."
- G.W. McMahon, deputy governor since 1964, economic analyst Treasury 1953-57, adviser British Embassy Washington 1957-60
- Sir Adrian Cadbury, chairman Cadbury Schweppes, dir. IBM UK
- Leopold de Rothschild, N.M. Rothschild and Sons, etc.
- George V. Blunden, exec. dir. Bank of England since 1947, served with IMF 1955-58
- A.D. Lochnis, dir. J. Henry Schroder Wagg
- G.A. Drain, member Trilateral Commission, treasurer European Movement, Franco-British Council, British North American Committee, lawyer for many unions and health associations
- Sir Jasper Hollom, has been on the board since 1936
- D.G. Scholey, chairman S.G. Warburg Co., Orion Insurance, Union Discount of London, Mercury Securities, which now owns S.G. Warburg Co. Irwin Holdings
- J.M. Clay, dep. chairman Hambros Bank, chairman Johnson and Firth Brown Ltd
- Hambros Life Assurance
- Sir David Steel, chairman British Petroleum, dir. Kuwait Oil Co., The Wellcome Trust, trustee The Economist (whose chairman is Evelyn de Rothschild)
- Lord Nelson of Stafford, chairman GE Ltd. chairman Royal Worcester Co., Natl. Bank of Australasia, International Nickel, British Aircraft, English Electric, Marconi Ltd. chairman World Power Conference, Worshipful Co. of Goldsmiths, Middle Eastern Assn
- Lord Weir, chairman The Weir Group, chairman Great Northern Investment Trust
- E.A.J. George, exec. dir Bank of England, dir. Gilt-Edged Division Bank of England, IMF 1972-72, Bank for International Settlements 1966-69
- Sir Hector Laing, chairman United Biscuit, Allied Lyons, Royal Insurance
- Sir Alastair Pilkington, chairman Pilkington Bros. Glass, dir. British Petroleum, British Railways Board.
The Merchants of Death and World War I
Chairman NYE: In 1917, Mr. Carse, you drafted a letter to help Zaharoff avoid paying income tax on your commissions to him of $766,852. There is Exhibit 24, a letter dated Sept. 21, 1917, addressed to Mr. H.C. Sheridan, Washington, D.C. Who is Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Carse ?
CARSE: He owns the Hotel Washington. At that time he was the agent of Vickers Ltd. in this country, and he was also a representative of Zaharoff. Mr Sheridan handled Mr. Zaharoff's income tax with White and Case.
CHMN: Did you know that this was false, that this omission of a million dollars referred to was actually Sir Basil Zaharoff's income ?
CARSE: No, I did not know anything about Zaharoff's income.
CHMN: But you have told us that a letter by Zaharoff six weeks earlier that 82,000 francs he received was his own personal income.
CARSE: I do not know what Zaharoff did in his business. He did not tell me.
CHMN: Did Zaharoff succeed in escaping the payment of income tax to the United States ?
CARSE: I believe there was some settlement made. Sheridan handled it. Zaharoff was never a stockholder insofar as I ever knew. The men who handle very large stock do not put the stock in their own names.
CHMN: Zaharoff wrote to you 19 May, 1925: 'I desire no thanks for what I have done, because I am bound to attend to the interest of my firm of Vickers and the Electric Boat Co. in both of which I am a stockholder.'
CARSE: I know he told me that, but I was never able to trace anything."
CLARK: So this whole occasion of arming Peru, and of the revolution in Bolivia on the basis of arming against Chile was based on erroneous rumor ?
MR. SPEZAR: That is my impression.
CLARK: You wanted to interest the large oil companies in financing an armament program for South America
CARSE: I was willing to present any proposition the government might approve with regard to any oil companies which might be interested.
"Zaharoff kept him (Lloyd George) closely informed on the Balkans. During the war, Zaharoff was sent on various secret missions by Lloyd George. The Big Three, Wilson, Lloyd George and Clemenceau, met in Zaharoff's home in Paris.
On one occasion, Zaharoff went to Germany (in 1917) on Lloyd George's personal instructions, disguised in the uniform of a Bulgarian Army doctor. Clemenceau later said, 'The information which Zaharoff secured in Germany for Lloyd George was the most important piece of intelligence of the whole war.'"
"The Societe Miniere de Penarroya controls the most important lead mines of the world, accounting for one-eighth of the world's production. Since 1833 the French bankers, the Rothschilds, have controlled these mines, but in 1909 the Rothschild Bank entered into an alliance with the Metallgeschaft of Frankfurt, the company in which both the Kaiser and Krupp were heavily interested.
This company remained under German and French control for about two years of the war. At the outbreak of hostilities, 150,000 tons of lead were shipped from these mines to Germany, via Switzerland. When shipments to France were resumed, the price was raised to such an extent that it more than doubled the price which the English paid for their lead.
Free trade between Germany and France in important chemicals, for powder, etc. continued; the Swiss supplied both sides with electric power. All along their frontier great powerhouses sprang into being, facing Germany from Italy, producing iron, bauxite, chemicals and power. Zeiss products were exported to Britain throughout the war."
"At the beginning of the war many thousands of German reservists were allowed to return to Germany although our Fleet could have stopped them. German individuals, firms and companies went on trading merrily in British names, collecting their debts, and indirectly, no doubt, financing German militarism.
At the very moment when Germans were destroying our property by Zeppelin bombs we were actually paying them money instead of taking their holdings as part compensation for damage done. In January 1915 came the vicious decision by Lord Reading (Rufus Isaacs) and the Appeal Court, according to which the Kaiser and Little William Co. was a good British company, capable of suing the King's own subjects in the King's own courts.
The uninterrupted activity in this country of the Frankfurt Metal Octopus is not an accident. Let me analyze one lurid case, which has stirred public indignation and anger to its depths. I mean the impudent survival of the German banks. We have now been at war nearly three years. Yet their doors are still open. They sent large quantities of bullion to Germany after the war started."
"The Mexican Revolution was really caused by H. Clay Pierce, who owned 35% of Pierce-Waters Oil Co.; Standard Oil owned the other 65%. He wanted to get my property. He demanded of Diaz that he should take off the taxes on oil imports so that Standard Oil could bring in products from the U.S. Diaz refused."
"I asked for an interview with the President. I explained to him as earnestly as I could that I was deeply concerned about the necessity of the mobilization of the industries of the country. The President listened very attentively and graciously, as he always does, and the next thing I heard, some months afterward, my attention was brought to this Council of National Defense."
"MR. GRAHAM: Did the President express any opinion about the advisability of adopting the scheme you proposed ?
BARUCH: I think I did most of the talking.
GRAHAM: Did you impress him with your belief that we were going to get into the war ?
BARUCH: I probably did.
GRAHAM: That was your opinion at the time ?
BARUCH: Yes. I thought we were going to get into the war. I thought a war was coming long before it did.
MR. JEFFRIES: Then the system you did adopt did not give the Lukens Steel & Iron Co. the amount of profit that the low-producing companies did ?
BARUCH: No, but we took 80% away from the others.
MR. JEFFRIES: The law did that, didn't it ?
BARUCH: The government did that.
GRAHAM: What did you mean by the use of the word 'we'?
BARUCH: The government did that ~ excuse me, but I meant we, the Congress.
GRAHAM: You meant that the Congress passed a law covering that.
BARUCH: Yes, sir.
GRAHAM: Did you have anything to do with that ?
BARUCH: Not a thing.
GRAHAM: Then I would not use the word 'we' if I were you."
"My personal view is that Baruch would have been tremendously important in the Hughes election, if Hughes had been elected in the close election of 1916, both in the conduct of the war and in the making of the peace."
Field continues, "Under this curious cloak of anonymity, Baruch exercised a very unusual type of political power in those early Wilson days. He was cultivated by most of the Wilson lights, who speedily found out that he could do more for them than they could do by directly appealing to Wilson. Naturally, there was no publicity for all this."
- Asst. chairman, Clarence Dillon of Dillon, Read
- Robert S. Brookings, chairman Price Fixing Committee of WIB, later founded the Brookings Institution
- Felix Frankfurter, chairman of the War Policies Labor Board
- Herbert Hoover and T.F. Whitmarsh of the U.S. Food Administration
- H.B. Swope, publicity agent for Baruch
- Harrison Williams
- Albert Ritchie, later Gov. of Maryland
- Gen. Goethals
- and Rear Adm. F.F. Fletcher
"Our opponents have sometimes tried to make it appear that we were attacking a race when we denounced the financial policy of the Rothschilds. But we are not ~ we are as much opposed to the financial policy of J.P. Morgan as we are to the financial policy of the Rothschilds."
"Before and during the First World War, the great German news agency Wolff was owned by the European banking house of Rothschild, which had its central headquarters in Berlin. A leading member of the firm was also kaiser Wilhelm's personal banker (Max Warburg).
What actually happened in Imperial Germany was that the Kaiser used Wolff to bind and excite his people to such a degree that they were eager for World War I. Twenty years later under Hitler the pattern was repeated and enormously magnified by DNB, Wolff's successors."
"I have searched out the records and they show that mobs trailed Charles A. Lindbergh Sr. during his 1918 campaign for the Republican nomination for the Minnesota governorship. He was arrested on charges of conspiracy along with the Non Partisan Leaguers; a rally at Madison, Minn. was broken up with fire hoses; he was hanged in effigy in Red Wing, dragged from the speaker's platform, threatened with lynching, and he escaped from town amid a volley of shots."
"I had a long discussion with Gen. McDonough, Chief of the War Intelligence Dept. in London; I submitted on Sept. 1, 1918 a report advising him peace with Bulgaria would provoke an uprising in Slavic Austria, panic in Germany and surrender of her armies; my advice was accepted; two weeks later peace was signed with Bulgaria, two weeks later Austria was out of the war, two weeks later Germany surrendered."
BARUCH: I was economic adviser with the peace commission.
GRAHAM: Did you frequently advise the President while there ?
BARUCH: Whenever he asked my advice I gave it. I had something to do with the reparations clauses. I was the American Commissioner in charge of what they called the Economic Section. I was a member of the Supreme Economic Council in charge of raw materials.
GRAHAM: Did you sit in the council with the gentlemen who were negotiating the treaty ?
BARUCH: Yes, sir, some of the time.
GRAHAM: All except the meetings that were participated in by the Big Five.
BARUCH: And frequently those also.
~ Treaty of Versailles, Financial Clauses 248-63).
- 20 billion gold marks, 5 billion paper marks by May 1, 1921, for the army of occupation.
- War cost of Belgium ~ 4 billion gold marks due May 1, 1926.
- 40 billion gold marks at 2 1/2% interest from 1921-26, to be retired in 1951.
- 30-year provisional fund of general reparations.
"The international bankers dictated the Dawes reparations settlement. The Protocol which was signed between the Allies and Associated Powers and Germany is the triumph of the international financier. Agreement would never have been reached without the brusque and brutal intervention of the international bankers.
They swept statesmen, politicians and journalists to one side, and issued their orders with the imperiousness of absolute monarchs, who knew that there was no appeal from their ruthless decrees. The settlement is the joint ukase of King Dollar and King Sterling.
Dawes report was theirs. They inspired and fashioned it. The Dawes Report was fashioned by the Money Kings. The orders of German financiers to their political representatives were just as peremptory as those of allied bankers to their political representatives."
The Post-War World Order: RIIA and CFR
"On May 30, 1919, several leading members of the delegations to the Paris Peace Conference met at the Hotel Majestic in Paris to discuss setting up an international group which would advise their respective governments on international affairs. The U.S. was represented by Gen. Tasker H. Bliss (Chief of Staff, U.S. Army), Col. Edward M. House, Whitney H. Shepardson, Dr. James T. Shotwell, and Prof. Archibald Coolidge. Great Britain was unofficially represented by Lord Robert Cecil, Lionel Curtis, Lord Eustace Percy, and Harold Temperley.
It was decided at this meeting to call the proposed organization the Institute of International Affairs. At a meeting on June 5, 1919, the planners decided it would be best to have separate organizations cooperating with each other. Consequently, they organized the Council On Foreign Relations, with headquarters in New York, and a sister organization, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, in London, also known as the Chatham House Study Group, to advise the British Government.
A subsidiary organization, the Institute of Pacific Relations, was set up to deal exclusively with Far Eastern Affairs. Other organizations were set up in Paris and Hamburg, the Hamburg branch being called the Institut fur Auswartige Politik, and the Paris branch being known as Centre d'Etudes de Politicque Etrangere, at 13 Rue de Four, Paris VI."
- Sir Otto Beit, trustee of Rhodes Estate and director of British South Africa Co.
- Percy Alport Molteno, son of the first Premier of Cape Colony
- Sir Abe Bailey, owner of the Transvaal Mines, who worked closely with Sir Alfred Milner in starting the Boer War
- John W. Wheeler-Bennett, who became Gen. Eisenhower's political adviser at SHAEF London 1944-45
- Sir Julien Cahn
- Lionel Curtis, colonial secretary of the Transvaal, who gave his address as the Round Table, 175 Picadilly Rd., London. He was later appointed Beit lecturer on the colonial history of South Africa.
- Sir Roderick Jones, head of Reuters
- G.M. Gatheren-Hardy
- Sir Andrew McFadyen, chairman North British Borneo Co. and United Rubber Estates ~ he served with the British Treasury 1910-1917, represented the Treasury at the Paris Peace Conference 1919-20, was Gen. Secretary of the Reparations Commission, 1922-25, Commissioner of Controlled Revenues Berlin 1924-30, later with S.G. Warburg Co.
- Col. Vickers
- Lord Brand, managing director Lazard Bros., who married Lady Astor's sister, Phyllis Langhorne, was dep. chairman British Mission in Washington 1917-18, financial adviser to Lord Robert Cecil, chmn Supreme Economic Council at the Paris Peace Conference
- George Gibson, dir. Bank of England
- John Hambro of Hambros Bank
- Lord Derby (Edward Villiers), Lord of Treasury, Secretary of State for War, 1916-1918, who had a 69,000 acre estate in Lancashire
- Lord Cromer (Baring).
"When I once asked Lord Haldane why he persuaded his friend Sir Ernest Cassel, grandfather of Lady Mountbatten, to settle by his will large sums on the London School of Economics, he replied, 'our object is to make this institution a place to raise and train the bureaucracy of the future Socialist State'."
The Opium Trade and Other Ventures
Basil Lubbock's work, "The Opium Clippers", 1933, lists the principal owners of British vessels engaged in the opium trade, with color illustrations of their flags. Most of them were ex-slavers. No. 1 was Hon. East India Co. (known to the Chinese as Hon John Co.);2. Jardine Matheson;3. Dent & Co.;4. Pybus Bros.;5. Russel & Co.;6. Cama Bros.;7. Duchess of Atholl;8. Earl of Balcarras;9. George IV;10. Prince Regent;11. Marquis of Camden;12. Lady Melville.
- Elie de Rothschild, director of New Court Securities, Banque Leumi de Israel, [and] Five Arrows Fund N.V. Curacao
- Alain de Rothschild, Five Arrows Fund Guracao, Banque Lambert de Bruxelles
- Guy de Rothschild, Rio Tinto Zinc, New Court Securities, NY.
- Sir James Goldsmith
- Hubert Faure, Ambassador to Colombia, pres. Schneider Madrid and ten Otis companies
- Bernard de Villemejane, pres. Imetal, director Copperweld.