How to be successful with an outdoor cooking range. The fire is of the first importance. Start it with fine kindling and clean, dry, hemlock bark. When you have a bright, even fire from end to end of the space, keep it up with small fagots of the sweetest and most wholesome woods in the forest. These are, in the order named, black birch, hickory, sugar maple, yellow birch, and red beech. The sticks should be short, and not over two inches across. Split wood is better than round. The outdoor range can be made by one man in little more than an hour, and the camper-out, who once tries it, will never wish to see a "portable camp-stove" again.
4. Trees can mitigate the effects of severe weather.
Scientists, farmers, gardeners, and people who live in canary areas (the poles, islands) are witnessing the effects of drought, habitat change, and ice melt. Over time, the changes will become increasingly more obvious, probably in the form of more severe weather.
They hold the soil to prevent erosion from downpours and flash floods. Holding the soil (and decreasing the soil temperature via shade) also prevents desertification and dust storms.
The shade cast by trees decreases the effects of harsh heatwaves, and trees can usually survive drought much better than smaller plants. They can absorb carbon to help prevent the worst excesses of climate change, and they can provide habitat and food for other species that make up our ecosystems.
5. Trees make an area more livable.
Not only are trees useful, but they are beautiful. Their green soothes the eye. Their spring blossoms remind us that winter's harsh reign is almost ended, and their multi-colored fall leaves remind us that the baking heat of summer is over.
Since trees take many years to reach maturity, we need to plant a variety of fruit, nut, and shade trees now, wherever we can feasibly and safely do so. For food security, for heat in the winter and shade in the summer, for income, taste and nutrition, for a place worth living, plant a tree this fall.
The person who wrote this article left out a most important role of the tree. The tree in its natural state is home to birds and animals, insects, as well as food and sustenance. This owl is fully at home in his orchard apple tree.