By Eustace Mullins
In 1987, the eighteen largest drug firms were ranked as follows:
1. Merck (U.S.) $4.2 billion in sales.
2. Glaxo Holdings (United Kingdom) $3.4 billion.
3. Hoffman LaRoche (Switzerland) $3.1 billion.
4. Smith Kline Beckman (U.S.) $2.8 billion.
5. Ciba-Geigy (Switzerland) $2.7 billion.
6. Pfizer (U.S.) $2.5 billion (Standard & Poor's gives its sales as $4
7. Hoechst A. G. (Germany) $2.5 billion (Standard & Poor's
lists its sales as $38 billion Deutschmarks).
8. American Home Products (U.S.) $2.4 billion ($4.93 billion
according to Standard & Poor's).
9. Lilly (U.S.) $2.3 billion ($3.72 billion Standard & Poor's).
10. Upjohn (U.S.) $2 billion.
11. Squibb (U.S.) $2 billion.
12. Johnson & Johnson (U.S.) $1.9 billion.
13. Sandoz (Switzerland) $1.8 billion.
14. Bristol Myers (U.S.) $1.6 billion.
15. Beecham Group (United Kingdom) $1.4 billion (Standard &
Poor's gives $1.4 billion in sales of the U.S. subsidiary ~
$2.6 billion pounds sterling as overall income).
16. Bayer A. G. (Germany) $1.4 billion (Standard & Poor's gives
the figure as $45.9 billion Deutschmarks).
17. Syntex (U.S.) $1.1 billion.
18. Warner Lambert (U.S.) $1.1 billion (Standard & Poor's gives
the figure as $3.1 billion).
Thus we find that the United States still maintains an
overwhelming lead in the production and sale of drugs. In the
United States, the sale of prescription drugs rose in 1987 by 12.5%
to $27 billion. Eleven of the eighteen leading firms are located in the
United States; three in Switzerland; two in Germany; and two in the
United Kingdom. Nutritionist T. J. Frye notes that the Drug Trust in
the United States is controlled by the Rockefeller group in a cartel
relationship with I. G. Farben of Germany. In fact, I. G. Farben was
the largest chemical concern in Germany during the 1930s, when it
engaged in an active cartel agreement with Standard Oil of New
Jersey. The Allied Military Government split it up into three
companies after World War II, as part of the "anti-cartel" goals of
that period, which was not unlike the famed splitting up of Standard
Oil itself by court order, while the Rockefellers maintained
controlling interest in each of the new companies.
In Germany, General William Draper, of Dillon Read investment bankers,
unveiled the new decree from his office in the I. G. Farben building.
Henceforth, I. G. Farben would exist no more; instead, three
companies would emerge ~ Bayer, of Leverkusen; BASF at
Ludwigshafen; and Hoescht, near Frankfort. Each of the three
spawns is now larger than the old I. G. Farben; only ICI of England
is larger. These firms export more than half of their product. BASF
is represented in the United States by Shearman and Sterling, the
Rockefeller law firm of which William Rockefeller is a partner.
The world's No. 1 drug firm, Merck, began as an apothecary
shop in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1668. Its president, John J. Horan,
is a partner of J. P. Morgan Company, and the Morgan Guaranty
He attended a Bilderberger meeting in Rye, New York, May
10-12, 1985. In 1953, Merck absorbed another large drug firm,
Sharp & Dohme. At that time, Oscar Ewing, the central figure in the
government fluoridation promotion for the Aluminum Trust, was
secretary of the Merck firm, his office then being at One Wall
Street, New York.
Directors of Merck include John T. Connor, who began his
business career with Cravath, Swaine and Moore, the law firm for
Kuhn, Loeb Company; Connor then joined the Office of Naval
Research, became Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Navy
1945-47, became president of Merck, then president of Allied Stores
from 1967-80, then chairman of Schroders, the London banking
firm. Connor is also a director of a competing drug firm, Warner
Lambert, director of the media conglomerate Capital Cities ABC,
and director of Rockefeller's Chase Manhattan Bank. Each of the
major drug firms in the United States has at least one director with
close Rockefeller connections, or with a Rothschild bank. Another
director of Merck is John K. McKinley, chief operating officer of
Texaco; he is also a director of Manufacturers Hanover Bank, which
Congressional records identify as a major Rothschild bank.
McKinley is also a director of the aircraft firm, Martin Marietta,
Burlington Industries, and is a director of the aircraft firm, Martin
Marietta, Burlington Industries, and is a director of the Rockefeller
controlled Sloan Kettering Cancer Institute. Another Merck director
is Ruben F. Mettler, chairman of the defense contractor TRW, Inc.;
he was formerly chief of the Guided Missiles Department at Ramo-
Wooldridge, and has received the human relations award from the
National Conference of Christians and Jews ~ he is also a director of
Bank of America.
Other directors of Merck include Frank T. Cary, who was
chairman of IBM for many years; he is also a director of Capital
Cities ABC, and partner of J. P. Morgan Company; Lloyd C. Elam,
president of Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, the nation's
only black medical college. Elam is also a director of the American
Psychiatric Association, Nashville City Bank, and the Alfred P.
Sloan Foundation, which gives him a close connection to
Rockefeller's Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; Marian Sulzberger
Heiskell, heiress of the New York Times fortune.
She was married to Orville Dryfoos, the paper's editor, who died of a
heart attack during a newspaper strike; she then married Andrew Heiskell
in a media merger ~ he was chairman of Time magazine and had been
with the Luce organization for fifty years. She is also a director of
Ford Motor. Heiskell is director of People for the American Way, a
political activist group, chairman of the New York Public Library,
and the Book-of-the-Month Club. Also on the board of Merck is a
family member, Albert W. Merck; Reginald H. Jones, born in
England, formerly chairman of General Electric, now chairman of
the Board of Overseers, Wharton School of Commerce, director of
Allied Stores and General Signal Corporation; Paul G. Rogers, who
served in Congress from the 84th to the 95th Congresses; he was
chairman of the important subcommittee on health; in 1979, he
joined the influential Washington law firm and lobbyist, Hogan and
Hartson. He is also a director of the American Cancer Society, the
Rand Corporation, and Mutual Life Insurance.
Thus we find that the world's No. 1 drug firm has two directors
who are partners of J. P. Morgan Company, one who is director of
Rockefeller's Chase Manhattan Bank and one who is director of the
Rothschild Bank, Manufacturers Hanover; most of the directors are
connected with vital defense industries, and interlock with other
defense firms. On the board of TRW, of which Ruben Mettler is
chairman, is William H. Krome George, former chairman of
ALCOA, and Martin Feldstein, former economic advisor to
The major banks, defense firms, and prominent
political figures interlock with the CIA and the drug firms.
The No. 2 drug firm is Glaxo Holdings, with $3.4 billion in
sales. Its chairman is Austin Bide; deputy chairman is P. Girolami,
who is a director of National Westminster Bank, one of England's
Big Five. Directors are Sir Alistair Frame, chairman of Rio Tinto
Zinc, one of the three firms which are the basis of the Rothschild
fortune; Frame is also on the board of another Rothschild holding,
the well known munitions firm, Vickers; also Plessey, another
defense firm which recently bid on a large contract with the U.S.
Army; Frame is president of Britoil, and director of Glaxo are Lord
Fraser of Kilmarnock, who was deputy chairman of the
Conservative Party (now the ruling party in England) from 1946 to
1975, when he joined Glaxo; Lord Fraser was also a member of the
influential Shadow cabinet; B. D. Taylor, counselor of Victoria
College of Pharmacy and chairman of Wexham Hospital; J. M.
Raisman, chairman of Shell Oil UK Ltd., another Rothschild
controlled firm. Lloyd's Bank, one of the Big Five, British
Telecommunications, and the Royal Committee on Environmental
Pollution; Sir Ronald Arculus, retired from Her Majesty's
Diplomatic Service after a distinguished career; he had served in
San Francisco, New York, Washington and Paris; he was then
appointed Ambassador to Italy, and was the UK Delegate to the
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which sought to
apportion marine wealth among the have-not countries: Arculus is
now a director of Trusthouse Forte Hotels, and London and
Continental Bankers; and Professor R. G. Dahrendorf, one of the
propagandist. Dahrendorf, a director of the Ford Foundation since
1976, is a graduate of the London School of Economics, professor
of sociology at Hamburg and Tubingen, parliamentary Secretary of
State at the Foreign Office, West Germany since 1969, and has
received honors from Senegal, Luxemburg and Leopold II.
The Rothschilds apparently appointed Dahrendorf a director of
Glaxo because of his emphatic Marxist pronunciamentos. The
European director of the Ford Foundation, he claims, in his book,
"Marx in Perspective," that Marx is the greatest factor in the
emergence of modern society. Dahrendorf's principal contribution to
sociology has been his well-advertised concept of the "new man,"
whom he has dubbed "homo sociologicus," a being who has been
transformed by socialism into a person whose every distinctive
feature, including racial characteristics, have disappeared. He is the
modern robot, a uniform creature who can easily be controlled by
the force of world socialism. Dahrendorf is the apostle of the
modern faith that there are no racial differences in any of the various
races of mankind; he denounces any mention of "superiority" or of
differing skills as "ideological distortion." Dahrendorf is a
prominent member of the Bilderbergers; he attended their meeting at
Rye, New York from May 10-12, 1985. He is professor of
Sociology at Konstanz University, as well as his other previously
Thus we find that the world's No. 2 drug firm is directed by two
of the Rothschild's family's most trusted henchmen and by the
world's most outspoken explicator of Marxism.
The world's No. 3 drug firm, Hoffman LaRoche of Switzerland,
is still controlled by members of the Hoffman family, although there
have been rumors of takeover attempts in recent years. The firm was
founded by Fritz Hoffman, who died in 1920. The firm's first big
seller was Siropin in 1896; its sales of Valium and Librium now
amount to one billion dollars a year; its subsidiary spread the
dangerous chemical, dioxin, over the Italian town, Seveso, which
cost $150 million to clean up in a 10 year campaign. His son's
widow, Maya Sacher, is now married to Paul Sacher, a musician
who is conductor of the Basle Chamber Orchestra. Hoffman had
added his wife's name, LaRoche, to the family company, as is the
custom in Europe; the Hoffmans still control 75% of the voting
shares. The Sachers have one of the world's most expensive art
collections, Old Masters and modern paintings.
In 1987, Hoffman LaRoche tried to take over Sterling Drug, a
venture in which they were aided by Lewis Preston, chairman of J.
P. Morgan Company; he also happened to be Sterling's banker. In
the ensuing brouha-ha, Preston decided to retire. Eastman Kodak
then bought Sterling, with backing from the Rockefellers. The
chairman of Hoffman LaRoche is Fritz Gerber, a 58 year old Swiss
army colonel. The son of a carpenter, he became a lawyer, then
chairman of Hoffman LaRoche. Gerber is also a director of Zurich
Insurance; thus he is associated with Switzerland's two biggest
firms; he draws a salary of 2.3 million Swiss francs per year, plus a
$1.7 million working agreement with Glaxo holdings.
Hoffman LaRoche received a great deal of publicity in April
1988 because of unfavorable revelations about its acne drug,
"Accutane" after the Food and Drug Administration publicized
figures that the drug had caused 1000 spontaneous abortions, 7000
other abortions, and other side effects such as joint aches, drying of
skin and mucous membranes, and hair loss. Hoffman LaRoche was
faulted by FDA for purposely omitting women, and particularly
pregnant women, from the studies on which it based requests for
approval of Accutane. The company was aware that Accutane
caused serious effects when taken during pregnancy.
Hard on the heels of the Accutane revelations, Hoffman
LaRoche made new headlines in the Wall Street Journal with
Congressman Ted Weiss's demand, reported on May 6, 1988, that a
criminal investigation be launched of the forty deaths, recorded
since 1986, caused by taking Versed, Hoffman La-Roche's
tranquilizer which is a chemical cousin of its best selling drug,
The No. 4 drug firm, Smith Kline Beckman, banks with the
Mellon Bank. Its chairman, Robert F. Dee, is a director of General
Foods, Air Products and Chemical and the defense firm, United
Technologies, which interlocks with Citibank. Directors are Samuel
H. Ballam, Jr., chairman of the Hospital of the University of
Pennsylvania, director of American Water-Works, Westmoreland
Coal Company, General Coal Company, INA Investment Securities,
chairman of CIGNA's High Yield Fund, and Geothermal Resources
International; Francis P. Lucier, chairman of Black & Decker;
Donald P. McHenry, former U.S. Ambassador to the UN, 1979-81,
now international advisor to the Council on Foreign Relations,
Trustee of Brookings Institution and the Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace, Ford Foundation, and the super-secret Ditchley
Foundation set up by W. Averell Harriman during World War II;
McHenry is also a director of Coca Cola and International Paper;
Carolyn K. Davis, who was dean of the school of nurses at
University of Michigan 1973-75, Health and Human Services since
1981; she is also a director of Johns Hopkins.
Other directors of Smith Kline are Andrew L. Lewis, Jr.,
chairman of Union Pacific, the basis of the Harriman fortune; he is
director of Ford Motor, trustee in bankruptcy Reading Company,
former chairman of Reagan's transition team and deputy director of
the Republican National Committee; R. Gordon McGovern,
chairman of Campbell Soup; Ralph A. Pfeiffer, Jr., chairman of
IBM World Trade Corporation, American International Far East
Corporation, Riggs National Bank, and chairman U.S.-China Trade
Commission; he is also vice chairman of the key foreign policy
operation, Center for Strategic and International Studies, which was
founded by Jeane Kirkpatrick's husband, Evron Kirkpatrick of the
The world's No. 5 drug firm, Ciba-Geigy of Switzerland, does a
billion dollar a year business in the United States, and operates ten
drug factories here.
Pfizer, No. 6 in size of the world's drug firms, does $4 billion a
year, according to Standard & Poor's; the company banks with
Rockefeller's Chase Manhattan Bank. Pfizer's chairman, Edmund T.
Pratt, Jr., was controller of IBM from 1949 to 1962; he is now a
director of Chase Manhattan Bank, General Motors, International
Paper, the Business Council and the Business Roundtable, two
Establishment organizations; he is also chairman of the Emergency
Committee for American Trade. Pfizer's president is Gerald
Laubach, who joined Pfizer in 1950; he is a member of the council
of Rockefeller University, and director of CIGNA, Loctite, and
General Insurance Corporation; Barber Conable is director of Pfizer;
he was a Congressman representing New York from 1965 to 1985,
which would indicate a close Rockefeller connection; Conable is
now president of the World Bank.
Other directors of Pfizer are Joseph B. Flavin, chief operating officer of
the 2½ billion a year Singer Company. Flavin was with IBM World Trade
Corporation from 1953-1967, then president of Xerox; he is now with the
Committee for Economic Development, Stamford Hospital, Cancer
Research Foundation, and the National Council of Christians and
Jews; Howard C. Kauffman, has been president of EXXON since
1975; he was previously regional coordinator in Latin America for
EXXON, then president of Esso Europe in London; he is also a
director of Celanese and Chase Manhattan Bank; his office is at One
Rockefeller Plaza; James T. Lynn, who was general counsel for the
U.S. Department of Commerce from 1969-71, then Under Secretary
of State 1971-73, and then secretary of HUD 1973-75, succeeding
George Romney in that post; Lynn was editor of the Harvard Law
Review, then joined Jones, Day, Reavis and Pogue in 1960 (a large
Washington lobbying firm); Lynn accompanied Peter Peterson, then
Secretary of Commerce, formerly chairman of Kuhn, Loeb
Company, to Moscow in 1972, to conclude a trade agreement with
the Soviets; this agreement was concluded in October, 1972; John
R. Opel, president of IBM, director of the Federal Reserve Bank of
New York, Time and the Institute for Advanced Study; Walter B.
Wriston, chairman of Citicorp, director of General Electric, Chubb,
New York Hospital, Rand Corporation and J. C. Penney.
Other directors of Pfizer are Grace J. Fippinger, secretarytreasurer
of the $10 billion a year NYNEX Corporation; she is an
adviser to Manufacturers Hanover, the Rothschild Bank, director of
Bear Stearns investment bankers, Gulf & Western Corporation,
Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance and honorary member of the
board of the American Cancer Society; Stanley O. Ikenberry,
president of the University of Illinois, director of Harris Bankcorp,
Carneigie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; William J.
Kennedy, chief operating officer of North Carolina Mutual Life,
director of Quaker Oats (with Frank Carlucci, who is now Secretary
of Defense), Mobil (with Alan Greenspan, who is now Chairman of
the Federal Reserve System Board of Governors ~ Greenspan was a
delegate to the Bilderberger meeting in Rye, New York, May 10-12,
Paul A. Marks, chief of Sloan Kettering Cancer Center since
1980; he is a biologist, professor of human genetics at Cornell, and
adjunct professor at Rockefeller University, visiting professor at
Rockefeller University Hospital; he is also with National Institute of
Health, Dreyfus Mutual Fund, director of cancer treatment at the
National Cancer Institute, director of American Association for
Cancer Research, served on the President's Cancer Panel from 1976
to 1979, and the Presidential Commission on the Accident at Three
Mile Island; he is a director of the $100 million Revson Foundation
(cosmetics fortune), with Simon Rifkind and Benjamin
Buttenweiser, whose wife was attorney for Alger Hiss while
Buttenweiser was Assistant High Commissioner for occupied West
Of the major drug firms, none shows more direct connections
with the Rockefeller interests than Pfizer, which banks with the
Rockefeller bank, Chase Manhattan, has as director Howard
Kaufmann, president of Exxon, and Paul Marks of the Rockefeller
controlled Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Rockefeller Hospital.
In most cases, only one Rockefeller connection is needed to assure
control of a corporation.
The No. 7 in world ranked drug firms is Hoechst A. G. of
Germany, a spinoff from I. G. Farben, i.e., Rockefeller Warburg
Rothschild control. It operates a number of plants in the U.S.,
including American Hoechst at Somerville, New Jersey, and
Hoechst Fibers Company. Hoechst manufactures the widely used
polyester fiber Trevira, antibiotic food additives for swine and
broilers (Flavomycin), and other pharmaceuticals used in animal
No. 8 in world ranking, American Home Products banks at the
Rothschild Bank, Manufacturers Hanover, and does $3.8 billion a
year ($4.93 according to Standard & Poor's). It became even larger
by its recent purchase of A. H. Robins Drug Company of Richmond,
VA. A. H. Robins had gone into bankruptcy after facing $2.5 billion
in payments to some 200,000 women who had been injured by its
Dalkon Shield, an intrauterine device. An inadequately tested vagina
clamp caused severe damage to many women.
A French firm, Sanofi, then attempted to buy the firm, but was beaten
out when American Home decided to pay a premium price for the firm's well
known brand names, Chapstick and Robitussin. American Home's
CEO is John W. Culligan, who has been with the firm since 1937;
he is a Knight of Malta, director of Mellon Bank, Carnegie Mellon
University, American Standard, and Valley Hospital; president of
American Home is John R. Stafford, director of the Rothschild
Bank, Manufacturers Hanover; he was formerly general counsel for
the No. 3 ranked drug firm, Hoffmann LaRoche, and partner of the
influential law firm, Steptoe and Johnson. Directors are K. R.
Bergethon of Norway, now president of Lafayette College; A.
Richard Diebold; Paul R. Frohring, and head of the Pharmaceutical
Division of the War Production Board from 1942 to 1946; he is now
trustee of John Cabot College, Rome, overseer of Case Western
Reserve University, Mercy Hospital, Navy League, and the
Biscayne Yacht Club.
There is also William F. LaPorte, who is director of
Manufacturers Hanover Trust, American Standard, B. F. Goodrich,
Dime Savings Bank, and president of the Buck Hill Falls Company;
John F. McGillicuddy, chairman of Manufacturers Hanover Bank,
who recently replaced Lewis Preston of J. P. Morgan Company as
director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Preston had
been criticized for his role in promoting a deal for Hoffman
LaRoche while engaged as Sterling Drug's banker); John F. Torell
III, president of the Manufacturers Hanover Trust and
Manufacturers Hanover Corporation; H. W. Blades, who was
formerly president of Wyeth Labs, and is now director of Provident
Mutual Life Insurance, Wistar International, Philadelphia National
Bank, and Bryn Mawr Hospital; Robin Chandler Duke, of the
tobacco family; Edwin A. Gee, director of Air Products and
Chemical, International Paper, Bell & Howell; he is now chairman
of International Paper and Canadian International Paper; Robert W.
Sarnoff, son of David Sarnoff, who founded the RCA empire; and
William Wrigley, chairman of the Wrigley Corporation, director of
Texaco and the Boulevard National Bank of Chicago.
No. 9 in world ranking is Eli Lilly Company, whose chairman
Richard D. Wood is also director of Standard Oil of Indiana,
Chemical Bank New York, Elizabeth Arden, IVAC Corporation,
Cardiac Pacemakers Inc., Elanco Products, Dow Jones, Lilly
Endowment, Physio-Control Corporation, and the American
Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, a supposedly
rightwing think-tank in Washington where Jeane Kirkpatrick reigns
Directors of Lilly are Steven C. Beering, born in Berlin,
Germany, now president of Purdue University; he serves on
numerous medical boards, Diabetes Association, Endocrine
Association and is a director of Arvin Industries; Randall H. Tobias,
is a director of the Bretton Woods Committee, has been with Bell
Telephone Labs since 1964, now director of AT&T and Home
Insurance Corporation; Robert C. Seamans, Jr. who was Secretary
of the Air Force from 1969-1973, now director of the Carnegie
Institute, Smithsonian Museum and National Geographic Society
(with Laurance Rockefeller); He is also a director of Combustion
Engineering, a firm which is engaged in a number of deals with the
Soviet Union, Putnams Funds, a New England powerhouse
investment firm; other directors of Lilly are J.
Clayton LaForce, a Fulbright scholar, now director of the Rockefeller-funded
National Bureau for Economic Research, and is dean of the graduate school
of management at the University of California. LaForce is an
influential member of the secretive Mont Pelerin Society, which
represents the Viennese school of economics, a Rothschild
sponsored enterprise which features Milton Friedman as its
mouthpiece ~ it is actually a pseudo-rightwing think-tank run by
William Buckley and the CIA. LaForce is also a trustee of the
pseudo rightwing thinktank, Hoover Institution of Stanford
University, which is run by two directors of the Rockefeller-funded
League for Industrial Democracy, the leading Trotskyite think-tank,
Sidney Hook and Seymour Martin Lipset. Other directors of Lilly
are J. Paul Lyet II, chairman of the giant defense firm Sperry
Corporation—two-thirds of its contracts are with government
agencies; Lyet is also a director of Eastman Kodak, which has just
purchased Sterling Drug; he is also a director of Armstrong World
Industries, NL Industries and the Continental Group.
Alva Otis Way III, president of American Express, director of Schroder
Bank and Trust, formerly chairman ~ also director of Shearson Lehman,
which now incorporates Kuhn, Loeb Company and Lehman Brothers,
director of Firemans Fund Insurance Company and American
International Banking Corporation, Warnex Ampex
Communications Corporation; C. William Verity, Jr., whose father
founded Armco Steel; a Yale graduate, Verity is now chairman of
Armco; he was recently appointed Secretary of Commerce to
replace fellow Yale man Malcolm Baldrige, a director of the defense
firm Scovill Manufacturing ~ Baldrige had fallen off of a horse.
Verity is also a director of Chase Manhattan Bank, Mead
Corporation and Taft Broadcasting. Verity was chosen as Secretary
of Commerce because of his longtime record of agitation on behalf
of the super-secret group, the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic
Council, also known as USTEC, whose records are classified as Top
Secret ~ several lawsuits are now under way to force the
government to release USTEC documents under the Freedom of
Information Act, but so far government attorneys have fought off all
attempts to find out what this group is doing.
Supposedly a cordial group of well-meaning American businessmen meeting
with their smiling Soviet counterparts, USTEC was the brainchild of a top
KGB official, who promoted it at the 1973 summit meeting between
President Nixon and Brezhnev. The go-between was Donald
Kendall of Pepsicola, who had just concluded a major trade deal
with Russia; part of the price was Kendall's selling USTEC to the
White House Team. Without Kendall, USTEC might never have
gotten off the ground. The real goal of USTEC was voiced by H.
Rowan Gaither, head of the Ford Foundation, when he was
interviewed by foundation investigator, Norman Dodd. Gaither
complained about the bad press the Ford Foundation was receiving,
claiming it was unjustified.
"Most of us here," he exclaimed in self exculpation,"were at one time or another, active in either the OSSor the State Department, or the European Economic Administration.During those times, and without exception, we operated underdirectives issued from the White House, the substance of which wasto the effect that we should make every effort to alter life in theUnited States so as to make possible a comfortable merger with theSoviet Union."
USTEC is an important step in the merger program. Alva Way,
president of American Express, serves on the board of Eli Lilly with
C. William Verity. Way's fellow executive, James D. Robinson III,
who is chairman of American Express, is a prime mover in USTEC,
as is Robert Roosa, partner in Brown Brothers Harriman investment
banking firm, who is executive officer of the Trilateral Commission.
Other important USTEC members are Edgar Bronfman, head of the
World Zionist Congress, chairman of Seagrams, the Bronfman
family firm, and controlling a sizeable part of DuPont's stock, 21%;
Maurice Greenberg, chairman of American International Group; Dr.
Armand Hammer, longtime friend of the Soviet Union, and Dwayne
Andreas, grain tycoon who is head of Archer-Daniels-Midland
Corporation. Andreas, who financed CREEP, the organization
which brought about the resignation of Richard Nixon from the
presidency of the United States, has on his board Robert Strauss,
former chairman of the Democratic National Committee, and Mrs.
In 1972, a meeting was called in Washington at the ultra exclusive
F. Street Club, which had long been the secret meeting
place for the top wheelers and dealers in Washington. Donald
Kendall had invited David Rockefeller, who had opened a branch of
Chase Manhattan in Red Square, Moscow, Helmut Sonnenfeldt of
the State Department, who reputedly had been Henry Kissinger's
"control" when Kissinger came to the United States as a double
agent under Sonnenfeldt's patronage, and Georgi Arbatov, the well
known Soviet propagandist in the United States. Arbatov told the
group who Soviet Russia wanted on the board of the prospective
organization, which became USTEC. He wanted Dr. Armand
Hammer, Reginald Jones of General Electric, Frank Cary of IBM,
and Irving Shapiro, head of DuPont. USTEC's ostensible purpose
was to promote trade between the U.S. and Russia; its real purpose
was to rescue the floundering Soviet economy and save its leaders
from a disastrous revolution. The U.S. offered high technology,
grain and military goods; the Russians offered to continue the
The world's tenth largest drug firm is Upjohn, which is heavily
into the production of agricultural chemicals such as Asgrow.
Upjohn has now been taken over by the leading defense firm, Todd
Shipyards, whose directors include Harold Eckman, a director of W.
R. Grace, the Bank of New York, Centennial Life Insurance
Company, Home Life Insurance Company ~ he is the chairman of
Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company, and Union de Seguros of
Mexico: Raymond V. O'Brien, Jr., chairman of Emigrant Savings
Bank of New York, and the International Shipholding Corporation;
R. T. Parfet, Jr., who is chairman of Upjohn, director of Michigan
Bell Telephone; Lawrence C. Hoff, who is chairman of the National
Foundation for Infectious Diseases, and the American Foundation
for Pharmaceutical Education; he is on the board of Sloan Kettering
Cancer Institute, and was Under Secretary of Health at HEW from
1974-77; he is director of the National Heart & Lung Institute, and
the U.S. Public Health Service Pharmacy Board.
Also there are P. H. Bullen, who was with IBM from 1946-71, now
operates as Bullen Management Company; Donald F. Hornig, professor
and director of the Interdisciplinary Progress in Health at the Harvard
University School of Public Health; he is a director of Westinghouse Electric,
and was group leader at Los Alamos in the development of the
atomic bomb; he was special adviser in science at the U.S. Public
Health Service from 1964 to 1969; he has received Guggenheim and
Fullbright fellowships; Preston S. Parish, chairman of the executive
committee at Upjohn, is a trustee of Williams College, Bronson
Methodist Hospital, chairman of trustees for the W. E. Upjohn
Unemployment Corporation, chairman of Kal-Aero, American
National Holding Company and co-chairman of the Food and Drug
Law Institute; William D. Mulholland, chairman of the Bank of
Montreal, in which the Bronfmans have controlling interest ~
Charles Bronfman is a director. Mulholland is also a director of
Standard Life Assurance Company of Edinburgh, Scotland, a
director of Kimberly-Clark, Canadian Pacific Railroad, Harris
Bancorp, and the Bahamas and Caribbean Ltd. branch of the Bank
Mulholland was a general partner of Morgan Stanley
from 1952 to 1969, when he became president of Brinco, a
Rothschild holding company in Canada from 1970 to 1974.
Mulholland is also a director of Allgemeine Credit Anstalt of
Frankfort (birthplace of the Rothschild family). Also director of
Upjohn is William N. Hubbard, Jr., a director of Johnson Controls,
Consumers Power Company a 3½ billion a year operation, formerly
president of Upjohn, and dean of the medical college at New York
The 11th largest drug firm, E. E. Squibb, has as chairman
Richard E. Furlaud; he is a director of the leading munitions firm
Olin Corporation, and was general counsel for Olin from 1957-
1966. Furlaud was an attorney with the prominent Wall Street law
firm, Root, Ballantine, Harlan, Busby and Palmer, founded by Elihu
Root, Wilson's Secretary of State, who rushed $100 million from
Wilson's personal War Fund to Soviet Russia to save the tottering
Bolshevik regime in 1917. Furlaud is a trustee of Rockefeller
University and the Sloan Kettering Cancer Institute, which shows a
Rockefeller connection at Squibb. Directors of Squibb include J
Richardson Dilworth, the longtime financial trustee for all the
members of the Rockefeller family. Dilworth married into the
wealthy Cushing family, and was a partner of Kuhn, Loeb Company
from 1946 to 1958, when his partner, Lewis Strauss of Kuhn, Loeb,
retired as financial advisor to the Rockefellers. Dilworth took the
job full time in 1958, taking over the entire 56th floor of Rockefeller
Center, where he handled every bill incurred by any member of the
family unit 1981. He is now chairman of the board of Rockefeller
Center, director of Nelson Rockefeller's International Basic
Economy Corporation, Chrysler, R. H. Macy, Colonial
Williamsburg (another Rockefeller family enterprise), and
Rockefeller University. He is trustee of the Yale Corporation and of
the Metropolitan Museum, and director of Selected Investments of
Other directors of Squibb are Louis V. Gerstner,
president of American Express, director of Caterpillar Tractor and
longtime board member of Sloan Kettering Cancer Institute; Charles
G. Koch, head of the family firm, Koch Enterprises, a $3 billion a
year operation in Kansas City. Koch has a $500 million fortune, and
personally bankrolled the supposedly rightwing organizations, the
Cato Institute, the Mr. Pelerin Society, and the Libertarian Party.
Koch Industries banks solely with Morgan Guaranty Trust, which
brings it into the orbit of the J. P. Morgan Company.
Other directors of Squibb are Helen M. Ranney, chairman of
the department of medicine of the University of California at San
Diego since 1973; she was with Presbyterian Hospital New York
from 1960 to 1964, and is a member of the American Society of
Hematology; Robert W. van Fossan, chairman of Mutual Benefit
Life Insurance, director of Long Island Public Service Gas &
Electric, Amerada Hess and Nova Pharmaceutical Corporation;
Sanford H. McDonnell, chairman of the defense firm, McDonnell
Douglas Aircraft Corporation; he is a director of Centerre Bancorp
and the Navy League; Robert H. Ebert, dean of the medical school
at Harvard since 1964; he is a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation,
the Population Council and president of the influential Milbank
Memorial Fund, director of the Robert W. Johnson Foundation from
the Johnson & Johnson pharmaceutical fortune; Ebert was a Rhodes
Scholar and a Markle Scholar; Burton E. Sobel, director of the
cardiac division at Washington University since 1973, National
Institute of Health, editor of Clinical Cardiology, American Journal
of Cardiology, American Journal of Physiology and many other
medical positions; Rawleigh Warner, Jr., chairman of the giant
Mobil Corporation, and director of many companies including
AT&T, Allied Signal (the $9 billion a year defense firm), American
Express, Chemical Bank, (also on the board of Signal was John F.
Connally, former Secretary of the Treasury.
There is also Carla Hills, former Secretary of HUD, whose husband was
chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission); Eugene F. Williams,
director of the defense firm Olin Corporation and Emerson Electric. Squibb
recently established a research institute at Oxford University with a
$20 million donation; it also maintains the Squibb Institute for
Medical Research in the United States. The scion of the family is
Senator Lowell Weicker, a liberal who consistently votes against the
Republican Party, of which he is a member. He is shielded from
party discipline by his family fortune.
Twelfth in ranking of the world's drug firms is Johnson &
Johnson; its chairman James E. Burke, is also a director of IBM and
Prudential Insurance. President of Johnson & Johnson is David R.
Clare; he is on the board of MIT and is a director of Motorola and of
Overlook Hospital. Directors are William O. Baker, research
chemist at Bell Tel labs from 1939 to 1980. A specialist in polymer
research, Baker is on the boards of many organizations, and serves
on the President's Intelligence Advisory Board. He is a consultant to
the National Security Agency, consultant to the Department of
Defense since 1959, trustee of Rockefeller University, General
Motors, Cancer Research Foundation and the Robert A. Welch
Foundation; Thomas S. Murphy, chairman of the media
conglomerate, Capital Cities ABC, director of Texaco; Clifton E.
Garvin, chairman of Exxon since 1947, the capstone of the
Rockefeller fortune; he is also a director of Citicorp and Citibank,
TRW, the defense firm, J. C. Penney, Pepsi Cola, Sperry, vice
chairman of the Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, chairman of the
Business Roundtable, and trustee of the Teachers Annuity
Association of America.
Also director of Johnson & Johnson is Irving M. London,
chairman of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine since 1970,
professor of medicine at Harvard and MIT, Rockefeller Fellow in
medicine at Columbia University, consultant to the Surgeon General
of the United States; Paul J. Rizzo, vice chairman of IBM, and the
Morgan Stanley Group; Joan Ganz Cooney, who is married to Peter
Peterson, the former chairman of Kuhn, Loeb Company. She is
president of Children's TV Workshop, director of the Chase
Manhattan Bank, the Chase Manhattan Group, May Department
stores and Xerox. She had been a publicist for NBC since 1954,
when she developed her profitable children's television program.
She received the Stephen S. Wise award.
Number thirteen in world ranking is Sandoz of Switzerland.
Lysergic acid, the famous LSD, was developed in Sandoz
laboratories in 1943 by chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann. Sandoz has $5
billion a year in business revenues including $500 million in
agricultural chemicals and dyestuffs produced by its American
factories. Sandoz owns Northrup King, the huge hybrid seed
company, Viking Brass and other firms.
Fourteenth in world ranking is Bristol Myers. Its chief
operating officer is Richard Gelb, formerly with Clairol, the
company which had been founded by his family. Gelb is chairman
of the Rockefeller controlled Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; he is a
director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Cluett Peabody,
New York Times, New York Life Insurance, Bankers Trust, the
Council of Foreign Relations, the Business Council and the
Business Roundtable. Directors of Bristol-Myers include Ray C.
Adam, a partner of J. P. Morgan Company and director of Morgan
Guaranty Trust, Metropolitan Life, Cities Service, and chairman of
the $2 billion a year NL Industries, a petroleum field service
We have William M. Ellinghaus, who has been with the Bell
Systems since 1940, president of New York Telephone, director of
J. C. Penney, Bankers Trust, vice chairman of the New York Stock
Exchange, International Paper, Armstrong World Industries, New
York Blood Center and United Way; he is a Knight of Malta of the
Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem, president of AT&T, director of
Textron, Revlon and Pacific Tel & Tel; John D. Macomber,
chairman of Celanese, director of the Chase Manhattan Bank, RJR
Industries, Nabisco; Martha R. Wallace, member of the Trilateral
Commission, management consultant to Department of State from
1951-53, now director of RCA, Fortune, Time, Henry Luce
Foundation and with Redfield Associates, consultants, since 1983.
She is chairman of the New York Rhodes Scholar Selection
Committee, director of American Can, American Express, Chemical
Bank, New York Stock Exchange, New York Telephone, chairman
of the finance committee of the Council on Foreign Relations and
member of the super secret American Council on Germany, which is
said to be the behind the scenes government of West Germany;
Robert E. Allen, who is director of AT&T, Pacific Northwest Bell,
Manufacturers Hanover and the Manufacturers Hanover Trust;
Henry H. Henley, Jr., chairman of Cluett Peabody, Clupak
Corporation, General Electric, Home Life Insurance, Manufacturers
Hanover Bank and the Manufacturers Hanover Trust, and trustee of
Presbyterian Hospital, New York; James D. Robinson III, chairman
of American Express, director of Shearson Lehman Hutton, Coca
Cola, Union Pacific, Trust Company of Georgia, chairman of
Rockefeller's Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Diseases,
Board manager of the Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, council
member of Rockefeller University, chairman of the United Way,
Council on Foreign Relations Business Council and the Business
Tthe epitome of the New York Establishment figurehead,
Robinson was with Morgan Guaranty Trust from 1961 to 1968 as
assistant to the president of the bank; Andrew C. Sigler, chairman of
the key policy corporation, Champion Paper, director of Chemical
New York, Cabot Corporation, General Electric and RCA.
Bristol-Myers is the 44th largest advertiser on the United
States, with an annual expenditure of $344 million, mostly in
television and advertising; this gives them a great deal of clout in
dictating the content of programs. Bristol-Myers is now pushing its
new tranquilizer, Buspar and its new anti-cholesterol drug,
Questran, which it expects to gross at least $100 million a year each.
The track record for anti-cholesterol drugs has revealed some
disturbing side effects, such as liver damage and other "unforeseen"
Number 15 in world drug firm ranking is Beecham's Group of
England, which specializes in human and veterinarian
pharmaceuticals. Chairman of Beecham is Robert P. Bauman, who
is also vice chairman of Textron, director of McKesson, another
drug firm, and the media conglomerate, Capital Cities ABC.
President of Beecham is Sir Graham Wilkins, director of Thorn EMI
TV, Hill Samuel, the investment bankers, one of the Magic
Seventeen merchant bankers licensed by the Bank of England, and
Rowntree Mackintosh candy firm, as well as Courtauld's, the giant
English textile firm which has close links with the British Secret
Intelligence Service. Directors of Beecham are Lord Keith of
Castleacre, who is chairman of Hill Samuel, investment bankers,
director of Rolls Royce, British Airways, the Times Newspapers
Ltd., and chairman of the Economic Planning Council, which has
total power over businesses in England.
Lord Keith was intelligence director of the Foreign Office before going into
business. Another director of Beecham is Lord McFadzean of Kelvinside,
who is chairman of Shell Transport and Trading, a Rothschild controlled
firm, director of British Airways, Shell Petroleum and Rolls Royce.
He is Commander of the Order of Orange Nassau, the super secret
organization created to celebrate the establishment of William of
Orange as King of England, and the subsequent chartering of the
Bank of England. Beecham's American subsidiary does $500
million a year.
Number sixteen in world ranking is Bayer A. G. of Germany,
one of the three spin-offs from I. G. Farben cartel after World War
II. Set up under orders from the Allied Military Government, which
was then dominated by General William Draper of Dillon Read
investment bankers, Bayer is now larger than the original I. G.
Farben. In 1977, Bayer bought Miles laboratories and Germaine
Monteil Perfumes, in 1981, it bought Agfa Gevaert, another spinoff
of American I. G. Farben, and in 1983 it bought Cutter Laboratories,
a California firm which was famed as having been set up to protect
the Rockefeller controlled drug firms in the great polio
All of the faulty polio vaccine was said to have been produced by Cutter,
freeing the Rockefeller firms from the threat of lawsuits.
During the 1930s, Bayer operated Sterling Drug and Winthrop
chemical companies in the United States as subsidiaries of
the giant I. G. Farben cartel. Winthrop Chemical's
president was George G. Klumpp, who had married into the J. P.
Morgan family. Klumpp was chief of the drug division of the Food
and Drug Administration in Washington from 1935-1941, when he
became president of Winthrop Chemical. He had also been
professor of medicine at Yale Medical School. A director of
Winthrop, E. S. Rogers was physician at the Rockefeller Institute
from 1932 to 1934, dean of the school of public health at the
University of California at Berkley since 1946; Rogers had been
consultant to the Secretary of War from 1941 to 1945.
Laurance Rockefeller was also a director of Winthrop Chemical,
showing the close connection between the Rockefellers and
I. G. Farben. Rockefeller was also a director of McDonnell Aircraft,
Eastern Air Lines, Chase Manhattan Bank, International Nickel,
International Basic Economy Corporation, Memorial Hospital, and the
Rockefeller Brothers Fund.
The number seventeen world ranked drug firm is Syntex, a firm
prominent in agribusiness. Its founder-chairman, George
Rosencrantz of Budapest, gives his present address as 1730 Parque
Via Reforma, Mexico DF 10; he left the country after a bizarre
kidnap scheme involving his wife. Chairman and president of
Syntex is Albert Bowers, born in Manchester, England, a Fulbright
fellow and member of the council at Rockefeller University;
directors are Martin Carton, executive vice president of Allen and
Company, Wall Street investment firm which was rumored for years
to be the investment arm of Meyer Lansky's five hundred million
dollar fortune from Mafia activities. Cartin is chairman of the
finance committee of Fischbach Corporation, director of Rockcor
Inc., Barco of California, Frank B. Hall & Company and Williams
Other directors of Syntex include Dana Leavitt, chairman of
Leavitt Management Corporation, director of Pritchard Health Care,
Chicago Title & Trust, United Artists, Transamerica, and chairman
of Occidental Life Insurance; Leonard Marks, executive vice
president of Castle & Cooke, the Hawaiian investment firm, director
of the Times Mirror Corporation, Wells Fargo, Homestake Mining
Company and California and Hawaii Sugar Company. Marks was
Assistant Secretary of the Air Force from 1964-68. Also director of
Syntex is a big name in banking, Anthony Solomon, now chairman
of S. G. Warburg's Mercury International. Solomon was economist
with the OPA when Richard Nixon began his career of government
Solomon then opened a canned soup firm in Mexico,
Rosa Blanca, which he sold for many millions. He then returned to
government service as an official of AID, president of the
International Investment Corporation for Yugoslavia 1969-1972,
was appointed Under Secretary for Monetary Affairs of the Treasury
Department, 1977-1980, and succeeded Paul Volcker as president of
York, when David Rockefeller moved Volcker up to become
chairman of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in 1980.
Solomon is also a director of Banca Commerciale Italiane.
Syntex is remembered for the mercurial rise in its stock when it
began to dump vast amounts of condemned drugs in backward
overseas countries. Its profits skyrocketed, as did its stock.
Number eighteen in world ranking is the former empire of
Elmer Bobst, Warner-Lambert. It is the number nineteen advertiser
in the United States, spending $469 million a year. Chairman of
Warner-Lambert is Joseph D. Williams, who is also director of
Warner-Lambert subsidiary, Parke-Davis, whose acquisition went
through only because Bobst had secured the presidency for his
friend Richard Nixon. Williams is also a director of AT&T, J. C.
Penney, Western Electric, Excello and Columbia University. He is
chairman of the People to People Foundation. President of Warner-
Lambert is Melvin R. Goodes, born in Canada, who was with the
Ford Motor Company. Goodes was a fellow of the Ford Foundation
and the Sears Roebuck Foundation.
Warner-Lambert, which was built into a drug empire by the
many Bobst acquisitions, now features Listerine mouth-wash
(26.9% alcohol), Bromo Seltzer, Dentyne, Schick razors, Sloan's
Linament, and Prazepan tranquilizer. Directors are B. Charles
Ames, chairman of Acme Cleveland, the M. A. Hanna Corporation,
Diamond Shamrock, and Harris Graphics; Donald L. Clark,
chairman of Household International, the huge finance firm, Square
D. Evanston Hospital and the Council on Foreign Relations;
William R. Howell, chairman of J. C. Penney, director of Exxon and
Nynex; Paul S. Morabito, director of Burroughs, Consumer Power,
and Detroit Renaissance, the ill-fated experiment in "human
rehabilitation" which poured billions into a Detroit rathole, and from
which Henry Ford II resigned in disgust; Kenneth J. Whalen,
director of American Motors, Combustion Engineering, Whirlpool
and trustee of Union College; John F. Burdett, director of ACF
Industries, General Public Utilities (which has sales of $2.87 billion
a year). Chairman of ACF is the noted raider, Carl Icahn, who is
chairman of the subsidiary IC Holding Company. Also directors of
Warner-Lambert are Richard A. Cramer, Irving Kristol, kingpin of
the neoconservative movement which centers around Jeane
Kirkpatrick and the CIA; and Henry G. Parks, Jr., token black who
founded Parks Sausage in Baltimore. He is now a director of W. R.
Grace Company and Signal Company.
Other directors of Warner-Lambert are Paul S. Russell of the
Harvard Medical School, Columbia College of Physicians and
Surgeons, U.S. Navy, U.S. Public Health Service, director of Sloan
Kettering Cancer Center since 1974; and Edgar J. Sullivan,
chairman of Borden, director of Bank of New York, director of F.
W. Woolworth, professor and trustee of St. John's University.
Sullivan is a Knight of Malta, director of the Council on Foreign
Relations and the Atlantic Council. Sterling Drug, maker of Bayer's
aspirin, and spinoff from the I. G. Farben cartel, is another important
Its chairman, W. Clark Wescoe, is a director of the
Tinker Foundation, John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, Phillips
Petroleum, and Hallmark Cards. He is chairman of the China
Medical Board of New York, long the favorite charity of media
tycoon Henry Luce. Wescoe is also trustee of the Samuel H. Kress
Foundation and Columbia University, and controls billions in
foundation funds. He is a director of the American Medical
Association, the American College of Physicians, and the Council
on Family Health. President of Sterling is John M. Pietruski, who
was with Proctor and Gamble from 1954 to 1967, now director of
Irving Bank, Associated Dry Goods (textile empire doing $2.6
billion a year); a later president, James G. Andress was with Abbott
Laboratories; directors are Gordon T. Wallis, chairman of Irving
Bank and Irving Trust, director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New
York, Council on Foreign Relations, F. W. Woolworth, JWT Group,
General Telephone and Electronics, Wing Hang Bank Ltd., and
International Commercial Bank Ltd.
William E. C. Dear-den, who was chairman of Hershey Foods from 1964
to 1985, now with the Heritage Foundation, the pseudo-rightwing think tank
run by the British Fabian Society; and Martha T. Muse, president of the very
influential Tinker Foundation ($30 million). She is also director of
Irving Bank, the American Council on Germany, ruling group of
West Germany, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, and
Georgetown Center for Strategic and International Studies, all of
which are the CIA preserves of veterans Evron and Jeane
Kirkpatrick. She is also director of the Woodrow Wilson
International Center and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Thus
we find that Martha T. Muse is a veritable director of top secret
CIA worldwide operations.
The Tinker Foundation, like the Jacob Kaplan Fund, is one of
the super secret organizations which funnels money to the CIA for
covert activities too bizarre to be submitted to any government
operations center. The secretary of the Tinker Foundation is
Raymond L. Brittenham, who was born in Moscow, educated at the
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin. He was general counsel for ITT,
whose German operations were headed by Baron Kurt von
Schroder, personal banker to Adolf Hitler. Brittenham was senior
vice president for law at ITT, Bell Tel, Belgian International,
Standard Electric, vice president Standard Lorenz, Germany
Harvard Law School, and partner of Lazard Freres investment
bankers since 1980.
Director of Tinker Foundation is David Abshire, White House confidant
on sensitive intelligence matters. He is chairman of American Enterprise
Institute, secret policy group headed by Jeane Kirkpatrick, and the
Center for Strategic and International Studies. Abshire was U.S. Ambassador
to NATO in Brussels, which serves as world headquarters and command center
for the Rothschild World Order; Abshire headed the Reagan
Transition team after Reagan's election to the White House; he also
headed the National Security group, is on the administrative board
of the Naval War College, the President's Foreign Intelligence
Advisory Board and the influential International Institute of
Also director of Tinker Foundation is John N. Irwin II,
educated at Oxford, partner of the Wall Street law firm, David Polk
Wardwell until he moved on to Patterson Belknap. Irwin has been
deputy assistant secretary of defense, internal security from 1957-
61, Under Secretary of State, Ambassador to France from 1970 to
1974. Irwin is a director of Morgan Guaranty Trust, IBM and the
super secret 1925 F. Street Club in Washington. Vice chairman of
the Tinker Foundation is Grayson Kirk, president of University of
Wisconsin, president emeritus of University of Chicago, advisor to
IBM, director of the Bullock Fund, the Asia Foundation, the French
Institute, Lycee Francais, trustee of Money Shares, High Income
Shares and the Hoover front, the Belgian-American Educational
Foundation. Kirk is also recipient of the Order of the British Empire,
St. John of Jerusalem, and is Commander of the Order of Orange-
When Hoffman LaRoche made a strong bid for Sterling Drug
in 1987, its cause was advanced by Lewis Preston, head of the J. P.
Morgan empire, who was also banker for Sterling Drug. Publicity
about his role caused his retirement for J. P. Morgan Company.
Sterling was then bought by Eastman Kodak through funding from
the Rockefellers. Kodak banks at Chase Lincoln First Bank, which
is wholly owned by Chase Manhattan Bank. Kodak does $10 billion
a year; its chairman is C. Kay Whitmore, who is a director of Chase
Manhattan Bank and Chase Manhattan National Corporation.
Directors of Kodak are Roger E. Anderson, former chairman of
Continental Illinois Bank until it threatened to go under from
mismanagement; he is now with Amsted Industries, a $700 million
steel corporation. Anderson is also chairman of the Chicago branch
of the Council on Foreign Relations. Other directors of Kodak are
Charles T. Duncan, dean of the law school of Howard University,
director of defense firm TRW, Proctor and Gamble and the NAACP
Legal Defense Fund. A 32nd degree Mason, Duncan has long been
active in black affairs, listing himself as assistant to now Supreme
Court Justice Thurgood Marshall in the school desegregation case
before the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1955. Juanita Kreps is also
director of Kodak, she was President Jimmy Carter's Secretary of
Commerce; she is now director of RJR Industries and the New York
Stock Exchange; she received the Stephen S. Wise award. Also on
the board of Sterling are John G. Smale, chairman of Proctor and
Gamble, director of General Motors; and Richard Mahoney,
chairman of Monsanto Chemical Company.
Because they are active in similar chemical formulations, the
leading chemical firms are also closely interlocked with the major
drug producing firms. Richard Mahoney, director of Sterling Drug,
is chairman of Monsanto Chemical, a $7 billion a year firm.
Mahoney claims he is seeking a twenty per cent return on equity for
Monsanto this year. He is also director of Metropolitan Life
Insurance Company, Centerre Bancorp, G. D. Searle.
President of Monsanto is Earle H. Harbison, Jr., who was with the CIA
from 1949 to 1967. Harbison is chairman of G. D. Searle, president of the
Mental Health Association and director of Bethesda General
Hospital and the St. Louis Hospital.
Directors of Monsanto are Donald C. Carroll, dean of the Wharton
School of Business; Richard I. Fricke, who was general counsel of the
Ford Motor Company from 1957-1962, now chairman of the National Life
Insurance Company and chairman of the Sentinel Group Funds; Howard A.
Love, chairman of National Intergroup, formerly National Steel,
director of Transworld Corporation and Hamilton Oil Corporation;
Buck Mickel, construction tycoon, chairman of Daniel International
Corporation which does over $1 billion a year, chairman RSI
chairman of and Duke Power, president of the Fluor Corporation,
vice chairman of J. P. Stevens, which is now undergoing a takeover
bid, director of Seaboard Coast Line railroad.
Also director of Monsanto is William G. Ruckelshaus, who was
deputy Attorney General of the United States and Assistant Attorney
General in the Department of Justice Civil Department from 1969-
70, administrator of EPA from 1970 to 1973, served as Director of
the FBI, senior vice president for law of the giant Weyerhauser
Corporation, director of U.S. West and Pacific Gas Transmission;
Stansfield Turner, who was director of the CIA from 1977 to 1981,
a Rhodes Scholar, president of the Naval War College, Commander
in Chief of NATO and the Second Fleet; C. Raymond Dahl,
chairman of Crown Zellerbach, director of Bank America; John W.
Hanley, former chairman of Monsanto, now director of Citibank,
Citicorp and RJR Industries; Jean Mayer, son of the longtime
chairman of Lazard Freres, Andre Mayer.
Jean Mayer was born in Paris and is director of many organizations
dealing with population studies; he was special consultant to the President
of the United States from 1969-1970, and has been president of Tufts
Universitysince 1976, director of UNICEF and WHO; John S. Reed, chairman
of Citibank, director of Philip Morris, United Technologies, Russell
Sage Foundation, and the Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; John B.
Slaughter, director of General Dynamics, Naval Electronic Lab at
San Diego, NSF Missile Spec., and chancellor of the University of
Maryland since 1982; he is active in a number of minority group
organizations, Urban League, trustee Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute; Margaret Bush Wilson, a lawyer in St. Louis, treasurer of
the NAACP and trustee of Washington University.
The close connection of the chemical industry and government
intelligence is shown by the fact that Monsanto officers and
directors include a CIA agent for twenty years, another former
director of the CIA, former director of the EPA and the FBI and an
engineer with General Dynamics, the nation's leading defense firm.
Although DDT was outlawed in this country, Monsanto
continues to make handsome profits by shipping it overseas,
particularly to countries in Latin America and Asia.
The eleven billion dollar a year Dow Chemical Corporation has
directors including Carl Gerstacker, director of the Eaton
Corporation. (Cyrus Eaton was a protégé of John D. Rockefeller,
long involved in pro-Soviet activities as organizer of the Pugwash
Conference, which was directed by the KGB); Paul F. McCracken,
economist for the Federal Reserve Bank of Minnesota from 1943-
48, professor of economics at the University of Michigan since
1948; McCracken was chairman of the Council of Economic
Advisers from 1956-71, and has served on the President's Advisory
Board of Economic Policy since 1981; Harold T. Shapiro, director
of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which funds the Rockefeller
dominated Sloan Kettering Center, president of the University of
Michigan, director of Ford Motor, Burroughs and Kellogg; Shapiro
has served on the CIA panel since 1984. Although Dow was a
family firm for many years, with Willard Dow as chairman, and
three Dows on the board of directors, they are now all gone.
Mallinkrodt was another chemical firm long owned by one
family; it is now a subsidiary of International Minerals and
Chemical; there are no Mallinkrodts on its board. Directors are
Jeremiah Milbank, a very influential New York family. He is
president of the Milbank Fund, which is dominant in medical
research; he is also treasurer of the Robert A. Taft School of
Government, and vice president of the Boys Club of America, on
which J. Edgar Hoover served for many years; Warren L. Batts,
president of Dart Industries, director of the Mead Corporation, the
First National Bank of Atlanta, Dart & Kraft and trustee of the
American Enterprise Institute with Jeane Kirkpatrick; Frank W.
Considine, chairman of National Can Corporation; Louis Fernandez,
director of the Tribune Company in Chicago, Encyclopedia
Britannica, First Chicago National Bank, Allis Chalmers and Loyola
Also Paul R. Judy, co-chairman Warburg Paribas Becker and
director of Robert Bosch of North America; Rowland C. Frazee,
chairman of the Royal Bank of Canada, director of Power
Corporation of Canada, McGill University, and Portage Program for
Drug Dependencies; James W. Glanville, was with Lazard Freres,
now Lehman Brothers, director of the Halliburton Corporation;
Thomas H. Roberts, Jr., chairman of DeKalb Agsearch, leading
producers of hybrid corn, Continental Illinois bank, Board of
Visitors Harvard University, president of St. Lukes Hospital, trust of
Rush Medical College; Morton Moskin, lawyer with the Wall Street
firm of White and Case, director of Crum & Forster.
For years, Mallinkrodt had a sweetheart deal with Memorial
Hospital Sloan Kettering. One of the shadowy figures, now
departed, who exercised a considerable influence behind the scenes
was the man who set up this deal, M. Frederik Smith, a longtime
Rockefeller associate who was director of Mallinkrodt. An
indefatigable public relations man, Smith worked at Young &
Rubicam, handled Bruce Burton's Congressional campaign, and
masterminded the Wilkie bid for the presidency. Smith served as
assistant to the President at the Bretton Wood conference and as
assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury from 1924-44, representing
the Rockefeller interests there. He also handled the public relations
for Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, was a director of ABC and
Simon and Schuster, handled public relations for the Book-of-the-
Month Club and founded the United Nations Free World
DuPont is another firm which for years was controlled by the
DuPont family; they now have few representatives on its board.
Edgar Bronfman now has a 21% holding in its stock. A former
director of DuPont was Donaldson Brown, who married Greta
DuPont; he was director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York,
General Motors Acceptance Corporation and Gulf Oil. This $14
billion a year firm now has Andrew Brimmer, former Governor of
the Federal Reserve Board, as director; he served as governor from
1966 to 1974.
A longtime rival of DuPont is Imperial Chemical Industries of
England. It was founded by Alfred Mond, who became Lord
Melchett. He formed agreements with I. G. Farben during the 1920s
which allowed him to absorb British Dyestuffs and Nobel Industries
in 1926. Its present chairman is Sir John Henry Harvey-Jones,
director of Barclay's Bank. President of ICI is the 4th Baron Lord
Melchett, Peter Mond, who finances the Greenpeace Environment
Trust. Directors are Sir Robin Ibbs, a director of Lloyd's Bank, who
serves as advisor to the Prime Minister. He is on the Council of the
Royal Institute of International Affairs, the parent organization of
our Council on Foreign Relations; Sir Alex A. Jarratt, who held
many government offices from 1949 to 1970, including Minister of
Power and Minister of State; he is now department chairman of the
Midland Bank, and director of the Thyssen-Bornemitza Group.
There is also Sir Patrick Meaney, who is chairman of the Rank Organization, a
movie making firm which was set up by the British Secret
Intelligence Service; they imported a Hungarian, Rank, to run it for
them and make anti-German movies in preparation for the start of
the Second World War; Meaney is also a director of the Midland
Bank. Also director of ICI is Sir Jeremy Morse, the chairman of
Lloyd's; he was director of the Bank of England from 1965 to 1972,
and is now president of the British Bankers Association; and also
director of ICI is the media tycoon, Lord Kenneth Thomson,
chairman of the Thomson Organization, which owns 93 newspapers
in the United States; most Americans have never heard of him; he is
also a director of IBM Canada and, Abitibi-Price, the newsprint
Donald C. Platten is also a director of Thomson Newspapers;
he was formerly with the Federal Advisory Council of the Federal
Reserve System; his daughter married Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt.
Another chemical firm, Stauffer Chemical, is now a subsidiary
of Cheseborough-Pond, a Rockefeller firm. Its chairman is Ralph E.
Ward; he is a director of the Chase Manhattan Bank and the Chase
Manhattan Corporation. The Rohm & Haas drug firm is in the
Mellon Bank orbit, with prominent Philadelphia financiers as
They include G. Morris Dorrance, Jr., who is chairman of
Corestates Financial Corporation, R. R. Donnelly Corporation,
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Provident Mutual Life
Insurance, Banque Worms et cie of Paris and Verwaltungsrat John
Berenberg, Gossler & Company. Dorrance is also a trustee of the
University of Pennsylvania; Paul L. Miller, Jr., partner of Miller,
Anderson & Sherrod; he is a director of Enterra Corporation,
Hewlett Packard, Berwind Corporation, Mead Corporation and
trustee of the Ford Foundation. Other directors are Robert E. Naylor,
Jr., who was director of research for DuPont from 1956 to 1981; he
is now with the Advanced Genetic Societies.
Other drug companies include Schering-Plough, whose president,
Richard J. Kogan, was with Ciba-Geigy; he is now director of the National
Westminister Bank of the United States; directors are Virginia A. Dwyer,
senior vice president for finance for AT&T; she is also a director of the
Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Borden, and Eaton; Milton F.
Rosenthal, was treasurer of Hugo Stinnes and now chairman of the
leading gold dealer, Engelhard Corporation, and director of
European American Banking Corporation. He is director of
Salomon Brothers, Midatlantic Bank and Ferro Corporation; H.
Guyford Spiver, chief scientist for the United States Air Force,
president of Carnegie-Mellon University, director of TRW ($5
billion a year defense contractor), science advisor to the President of
the United States, holding many positions and offices in his Who's
Who list; W.
David Dance, director emeritus of General Electric, director of Acme
Cleveland, A&P, Isek Corporation; Harold D. McGraw, Jr., chairman of
the giant business publishing firm, McGraw Hill and director of Standard
& Poor's, CPC International; J. W. van Gorkum, chairman of Trans Union
Corporation, director of Champion International, IC Industries, Zenith Radio
and Inland Steel; he is a member of the Bohemian Club.
Schering, a German firm, was seized by the Alien Property
Custodian in 1942; it was sold by auction on March 6, 1952 by the
Alien Property Custodian to a syndicate headed by Merrill Lynch,
with Drexel & Company and Kidder Peabody joining in the deal.
Another drug firm, Burroughs Wellcome, is owned by the
Wellcome Trust of England; its director is Lord Franks, a longtime
trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation.
As was previously mentioned, Abbott Laboratories of Chicago,
won recognition from the AMA for its products through adroit
handling of the nation's preeminent quack, "Doc" Simmons. Its
president Robert Schoellhorn, a director of Pillsbury and ITT;
directors include K. Frank Austen, professor at the Harvard Medical
School since 1960, chief physician at Beth Israel Hospital since
1980; he serves on many professional groups, including the Arthritis
Foundation, and the American Board of Allergy and Immunology;
Joseph V. Charyk, born in Canada, who was with Lockheed
Aircraft, the space director and Under Secretary of the Air Force
from 1959-1963; he was director of the communications satellite
program; director of American Securities Corporation, Washington,
D.C., Draper Laboratories, General Space Corporation, chairman of
the Communications Satellite Corporation and COMSAT
David A. Jones, chairman of the giant hospital firm, Humana
Corporation, heads a firm with 17,000 employees which does
$1.5 billion a year; he is also a director of Abbott Laboratories.
The chairman of the executive committee of Abbott is Arthur E.
Rasmussen, a director of Standard Oil of Indiana, trustee of the
University of Chicago, which was established by a grant from John
D. Rockefeller, trustee of the Field Foundation, and the International
Rescue Committee, chairman of Household International and the
Adler Planetarium; he is also a director of Amoco. Also director of
Abbott Laboratories is Philip de Zulueta, a principal Rothschild
operative in the British government for many years. De Zulueta is a
close associate of Sir Mark Turner, who is chairman of the
Rothschild firm Rio Tino Zinc. De Zulueta has been advisor to
every Prime Minister of England since World War II; he was Private
Parliamentary Secretary to Prime Minister Harold MacMillan. De
Zulueta also has served for years as the private emissary between
the Rothschilds of England and the Canada Bronfmans, who are
their "cutouts" or front men in this hemisphere.
Another important world chemical firm is Unilever, founded in
1894; it is now headed by Lord Hunt of Tanworth, who held many
important government positions from 1946 to 1973; he is also
chairman of the Tablet Publishing Company, chairman of the top-secret
Ditchley Foundation, (conduit for instructions between the
governments of the United States and England), chairman of
Banque Nationale de Paris and director of Prudential Corporation
and IBM; vice chairman of Unilever is Kenneth Durham, who is
chairman of Woolworth Holdings, Morgan Grenfell Holdings,
United Technologies, Chase Manhattan Bank, Air Products and
Chemicals, advisor to the New York Stock Exchange, director of
British Aerospace and president of the Center for World
Development and the Leverhulme Trust. Unilever owns Lever
Brothers in the United States; it bought Anderson Clayton Company
in 1986, Thomas Lipton Company and Lawry's Foods.
The drug firms exercise a potent force in Washington through
their lobbying activities. The chief lobbyist for the Pharmaceutical
Manufacturers Association is Washington's highest-powered
lobbyist, Lloyd Cutler. His mother was Dorothy Glaser; his sister
Laurel married Stan Bernstein; she is now vice president of the
public relations firm and advertising giant, McCann Erickson.
Cutler has been a partner of the Washington law firm Wilmer Cutler
and Pickering since 1962. He was a counsel to the President from
1979 to 1981, and is a trustee of the prestigious Brookings
Institution. A director of Kaiser Industries and American Cyanamid,
Cutler was with the Lend Lease Administration, served as senior
consultant to the Presidential Commission on Strategic Forces 1983,
U.S. Group Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague 1984, and
is a director of the Yale Development Board, the Foreign Policy
Association and the Council on Foreign Relations. He is a member
of the exclusive club, Buck's, in London and Lyford Cay, Nassau.
He writes for the CFR magazine, Foreign Affairs. In an article, "To
Form A Government," he complains that, "the structure of our
constitution prevents us from doing significantly better." He urges
that we should correct "this structural fault." The monopolists and
their highly paid Washington lobbyists often find the Constitution a
barrier to their plans; they cannot wait to get rid of it, because it is
the only protection the citizens of the United States have left.
Hospital combines, as well as the drug firms, have become big
business, and show close interlocking with major drug companies.
Baxter Travenol, with $1.5 billion sales per year, interlocks with
American Hospital Supply Corporation, a $2.34 billion a year
hospital operation. Both firms have the same chairman, Karl D.
Bays; he is a director of Standard Oil of Indiana, the omnipresent
Rockefeller connection. Bays is also a director of Northern Trust,
Delta Airlines, IC Industries, Amoco, and trustee of Duke,
Northwestern University and the Lake Forest Hospital. President of
American Hospital Supply is Harold D. Bernthal, who is also
director of Bucyars Erie Company, Butler Mfg., Bliss & Laughlin
Industries and trustee of Northwestern University and Northwestern
Directors of American Hospital Supply are Blaine J. Yarrington,
executive vice president of Standard Oil of Indiana, director of
the Continental Illinois Bank and trustee of the Field Museum
of Natural History; Yarrington is also a director of
Baxter Travenol. Other directors of American Hospital Supply are
Harrington Drake, chairman of Colgate University, director of
Corinthian Broadcasting System, Irving Bank, Irving Trust; Fred
Turner, chairman of MacDonald's; Charles S. Munson, Jr., chairman
of Air Reduction Corporation, Guaranty Trust, Cuban Distilling
Company, National Carbide, Canada Dry, Reinsurance Corporation
of New York, North British and Mercantile Insurance Company of
London, trustee of the Taft School and Presbyterian Hospital; he
was in the Chemical Warfare Service and served on the Army and
Navy Munitions Board; also on the board of Baxter Travenol was
William Wood Prince, a Chicago tycoon, president of F. H. Prince
Company, director of Gaylord Freeman, director of Atlantic
Richfield and trustee of the Aspen Institute of Humanistic Studies
and trustee of Northwestern University .
Another giant hospital holding company, American Medical
International of Beverly Hills, has seen its revenues climb from a
mere $500 million a year to $2.66 billion in five years; it now has
40,000 employees. Chairman is Royce Diener; president is Walter
Weisman; group vice president is Jerome Weisman. Directors
include Henry Rosovsky, born in Danzig, Germany; he has been a
director of the American Jewish Congress since 1975. Rosovsky
was educated at Hebrew University, College of Jerusalem and
Yeshiva University; he has been a professor at Harvard since 1965.
Rosovsky is a member of the Harvard Corporation, director of
Corning Glass and Paine Webber investment bankers.
Also director of AMI is Bernard Schriever, born in Bremen,
Germany. As a general in the United States Air Force, Schriever
was commander of the ICBM program from 1954 to 1959, Air
Force Strategic Command from 1959-1966. He is now chairman of
a contracting firm doing much government business in Washington,
Schriever-McGee, since 1971. Schriever is also a director of Control
Data, which operates under extensive Medicare and other
government contracts, director of defense contractor Emerson
Electric and transacts much of his business on the links of the
exclusive Burning Tree Country Club, the historic haunt of defense
contractors since President Eisenhower made it his favorite place of
Rocco Siciliano is also a director of AMI; he was with the
National Labor Relations Board from 1953 to 1957, special assistant
to President Eisenhower 1957-1959, Under Secretary of Commerce
1969-71, chairman of TICOR, 1971-1984, a leading California title
insurance firm, which is now a subsidiary of Southern Pacific
Siciliano was succeeded as chairman of this firm by Harold Geneen,
former chairman of ITT. Siciliano is "of counsel" for the
Washington lobbying firm, Jones, Day, Reavis and Pogue; he is also
a director of the giant J. Paul Getty Trust and the Johns Hopkins
University School of International Studies, which was founded by
Owen Lattimore, (named by Senator Joe McCarthy as a leading
Communist influence in the United States). Also director of AMI is
S. Jerome Tamkin, a prominent Los Angeles stockbroker, head of
Tamkin Securities and Tamkin Consulting Company.
The history of the pharmaceutical drug business has always
been a chronicle of fraud, of preying on the fears of the uneducated
and the gullible and taking advantage of the universal fears of the
illness and death. The grand daddy of all nostrums is Goddard's
drops, a bone distillate which was sold as a cure for gout in England
in 1673. In 1711, Tuscarora rice was sold there as a cure for
consumption. During some four thousand years of the practice of
pharmaceutical prescriptions, many "cures" have been found to be
worse than the disease. William Shakespeare warned, "In Physic
there is Poison." Dr. R. R. Dracke, well known blood specialist in
Atlanta, also issued a warning that "the following notable drugs may
poison the marrow in the bones, decrease the production of white
blood cells, may cause death and should be taken as medicine only
with specific instruction from a well known doctor ~ amidopyrene,
dinitrophenol (a diet drug), novaldine, antipyrene, sulphanilamide,
sedormid and salvarsen."
Physicians have warned that no acetanilid is safe, because all
coal tar derivatives are powerful heart depressants. Rorer
Pharmaceuticals makes Ascriptin, and television advertisements
have been urging men to take an aspirin or aspirin product daily "to
protect their heart." The attorneys general of Texas and New York
have requested drug firms to halt the claim that aspirin may prevent
heart attacks in men; it also reduces fever and makes it difficult for a
physician to correctly diagnose pneumonia.
The William S. Merrell Company, merged with Vick Chemical,
marketed thalidomide as the "tranquilizer of the future." It
guaranteed control of unpleasant symptoms during pregnancy.
Unfortunately, the children of mothers who took it were born
without arms or legs; some had flippers for arms. 60 Minutes
recently presented a twenty-five year update on English victims of
thalidomide, carefully avoiding any treatment of American victims.
The program showed the astounding courage of the victims, who
tried to carry on daily life, while the reporters seemed hard put to
keep from bursting into laughter at the strange beings who rolled
around like human eggs, maneuvering frantically to stay right side
CBS also avoided any mention of the names of the
manufacturers or distributors of thalidomide, although a typical
operation of their brand of "adversary journalism" would have been
to thrust a microphone into the face of the firm's chairman, and
demand to know why they didn't realize this was a dangerous drug.
CBS depends heavily on advertising revenues from the
pharmaceutical manufacturers, and they are not about to offend their
William S. Merrell also produced MER/29, which was
advertised as breakthrough in anticholesterol drugs. It was soon
found that MER/29 caused dermatitis, changing color of hair, loss of
sex drive and a condition known as "alligator skin." In 1949, Parke-
Davis' chloromycetin was hailed as the new wonder drug. Several
doctors were persuaded to give it to their children, who then died of
leukemia. 75% of the cases of aplastic anemia resulting from the
administration of chloromycetin were fatal. Dr. H. A. Hooks of El
Paso lost his seven and a half year old son, after he had been assured
by a Parke-Davis representative that the drug was safe. In December
1963, a Washington grand jury indicted Richard Merrell and
chairman William S. Merrell for falsifying date to the FDA on
They filed a "no contest" plea and on June 4, 1964 were
fined the maximum fine, $80,000. Parke-Davis defense counsel was
a former federal judge from 1957 to 1960, Lawrence Walsh, who is
now much in the news as the White Knight who is prosecuting
political figures on vague charges of malfeasance.
After an oral contraceptive pill was found to cause severe
reactions, the American Medical Association put great pressure on
Dr. Roger Hegeberg, Assistant Secretary of HEW and the Secretary
of HEW, Finch, claiming they were "over-emphasizing dangers";
the warning on the pill was then cut from 600 words to only 96
much milder words; this warning was increased by Secretary Finch
himself of April 7, 1970 to 120 words of warning, which was
released personally by Finch. The pill was then found to cause fatal
blood clotting, heart attack and cancer. The behaviour of the AMA
in this instance contrasted strangely with its violent attacks for many
years on "quacks," who it protested were the real dangers to the
Hoffman LaRoche marketed an intravenous drug, Versed,
which was linked to forty deaths in two years by FDA studies.
Richter's definitive work, "Pills, Pesticides and Profits," notes that a
U.S. company, Velsicol, sold three million pounds of a pesticide,
Phosvel (leptophos), which had never been approved by the EPA.
Velsicol exported it to thirty countries. It causes extensive damage
to the nervous system. In Egypt, it killed one hundred water buffalo
and poisoned dozens of farmers. Velsicol is a subsidiary of
Northwest Industries, a three billion dollars a year operation in
Chicago whose chairman is longtime rail magnate, Ben Heinemann,
a trustee of the University of Chicago, and the First Chicago
Directors of Northwest Industries are James E. Dovitt,
director of Hart, Schaffner and Marx, president of Mutual of New
York, and director of MONY; he is also a director of National Can.
Other directors of Northwest are William B. Graham, chairman of
Baxter Travenol Drug Company, also a trustee of the University of
Chicago, director of Deere, Field Enterprises, Bell & Howell and
Borg-Warner; National Council of U.S. China Trade; Thomas S.
Hyland, vice president of Standard & Poor's; Gaylord Freeman,
director of Baxter Travenol and Atlantic Richfield; James F. Bere,
chairman of Borg-Warner, director of Abbott Laboratories, Time,
Inc., Hughes Tool Company and Continental Illinois Bank.
After TRIS, a fire-retardant chemical used in clothing, was
banned in the United States, after years of enthusiastic advertising
that it would save thousands of children from death by fire each
year, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission banned it in
1977. 2.4 million TRIS treated garments were then exported to the
Third World. In 1977, the FDA removed dipyrene from the market.
It had been found to cause severe blood disorders, interfering with
the white blood cell function; it was then sold widely in Latin
America with no warning.
Cloquinol, a drug used to treat amoebic dysentery, produced by
Ciba-Geigy in 1934 (Batero Vioform and Mexon) was found to
cause a nerve disorder. Seven hundred Japanese died from taking it,
after 11,000 cases of SMON, subacute myelic optic neuropathy.
Ciba-Geigy then paid a settlement to some 1500 victims and
survivors. Hoechst marketed an analgesic said to be like aspirin,
aminopyrein and dipyrene. It was found to cause anemia and was
banned in the United States, but continued to be sold in Latin
America and Asia. Chlorophenicol (chloromycetin) also is still sold
in Latin America and Asia. Travellers are warned to beware of
drugs in foreign countries which have long been banned in the
The artificial sweetener, aspartame (Nutrasweet) has now
flooded the American market. It earned $750 million for its
producers in 1987, although it has come under attack as a cause of
brain seizures. The debate about aspartame has been going on for
thirteen years; more Congressional hearings have now been
scheduled. Meanwhile, Burroughs Wellcome hopes to make
millions with its new drug for AIDS, AZT. It is said to prolong the
life of AIDS victims from six months to two years. This firm is
owned by the Wellcome Trust, of which Lord Franks, a director of
the Rockefeller Foundation, is director.
Tranquilizers continue to be big business. Roche Labs
(Hoffman LaRoche) continues to push its No. 1 seller, Valium,
while promoting its other sellers, Librium, Limbitrol, Marplan,
Noludar, Tractan, Clonpin and Dalmane. Roche also produces
Matulane, which is used in cancer therapy. This drug causes
leukopenia, anemia, and thrompenia, with side effects of nausea,
vomiting, stomatitis, dysphagia, diarrhea, pain, chills, fever,
sweating, drowsiness, tachycardia, bleeding and leukemia.
If an alternative health care practitioner ever dared to offer such a
drug to the public, he would be incarcerated for life. We all know how
dangerous "quacks" are to your health. Roche's medical director, Dr.
Bruce Medd, hails these drugs as boons to mankind.
Listen to his rhapsodizing, "Unlike quack remedies, which are neither
tested nor scientifically proven, Roche products stand for quality and
efficiency. We at Roche join the fight against medical quackery and
health fraud." Despite Dr. Medd's assurances, the Office of
Technology Assessment of the U.S. Government states that 95% of
the drugs on the market have not been proven to work. Indeed, this
writer has never heard of any "quack" remedy producing even a
fraction of the harmful side effects as those listed above as caused
by Matulane, Dr. Medd's pride and joy.
Another firm offering "proven'' drugs is Smith, Kline Beckman,
which made its initial millions from peddling the drug known
as "speed" through prescriptions from doctors, the notorious
Dexedrine and Dexamil. Executives of Smith, Kline Beckman have
pled guilty to 34 charges of covering up 36 deaths and cases of
severe kidney damage in patients using their drug Selocrin, which
was finally removed from the market. Dr. Sidney M. Wolfe, in his
Health Letter, July, 1986 noted that Eli Lilly of Indiana and Smith
Kline Corporation of Philadelphia pled guilty to criminal charges of
failing to notify promptly the FDA of deaths and serious injuries to
people using their drugs. Lilly's Oraflex, an arthritis drug, was on
the market three months and used by 600,000 Americans before it
was withdrawn due to its side effects. Smith Kline's high blood
pressure, Selacryn, sold 300,000 prescriptions in eight months.
Pfizer withheld information from the FDA about Feldene
(pyroxicam, an arthritis drug), despite deaths and harmful side
effects in other countries. McNeil's Suprol, approved in 1985 as an
oral analgesic was found to cause kidney damage. Orudis
(jetoprofen), Wyeth's arthritis drug, increased the incidence of
ulcers. Merital (nomigensine), an antidepressant produced by
Hoechst, was approved by the FDA in December 1984, but had to
be taken off the market in January 1986, because of fatal reactions,
including hemolytic anemia. Wellbutrin (buproprion) was found to
cause convulsions in women and was removed from the market in
An officially approved "standard of care'' drug for treatment of
cancer of the colon is based on the use of a highly toxic chemical, 5-
F-U, despite reports in prestigious medical journals that it doesn't
work. It continues to be widely used, perhaps because the American
Cancer Society owns 50% of 5-F-U. Ciba-Geigy of Switzerland has
found an increasing market in the U.S. public school system for its
drug Ritalin, which through some alchemy has now become the
principal means of controlling "hyperactive" (read healthy) school
children. Social workers had coined a new term ADD (attention
defect disorder), which could be "controlled" by 20 mg tablets of
Ritalin in sustained release capsules. Aided by the education
establishment, which has a propensity for any drug or chemical
addition to the educational process, Ritalin has had a 97% increase
in use since 1985. Students are forced to take the drug, or to face
immediate expulsion from school. The Wall Street Journal, January
15, 1988, noted that a number of suits have been filed against
schools by anxious parents concerning the forced use of Ritalin. The
Georgia Board of Medical Examiners is now looking into the
skyrocketing use of Ritalin in the schools in Atlanta's affluent
suburbs. A student now on trial for murder has entered the defense
that he was on Ritalin.
Pesticides persist in being even more dangerous than insects.
Lindane, (Gammelin 20), produced by Hooker Chemical, a
Rockefeller connected firm, causes dizziness, brain disease,
convulsions, muscle spasms, and leukemia. For years, the FDA
waged a battle against Shell Oil's pesticide strips, which contain
lindane. These strips and other vaporizers continuously emit
lindane, and are widely used in restaurants, even though it had been
established that lindane not only contaminates any food substance,
but also any container for food which is not metal. Although these
tests were concluded in 1953, the Pesticides Regulator continued to
allow their use for another sixteen years!
FDA reports showed that Shell Chemical Company's No Pest Strips
continually release Vapone 3, the lindane formulation. The Agriculture
Department strictly forbade their use in meat processing plants, but the
enterprising manufacturer then peddled them to restaurants. From
1965 to 1970, the U.S. Public Health Service released warnings that
Shell No Pest Strips were dangerous to use in sleeping rooms of the
elderly or of small children. Dr. Roy T. Hansberry, executive of
Shell Chemical, which subsidized Shell Development, served on the
special Agricultural Department seven member task force to study
pesticide registration procedures. Shell had registered 250 pesticide
products. Hansberry's personal clearance to serve on this task force
carried the unsigned note, "The Agricultural Registration Service
does not have, or know of, any official business with the persons,
firms or institutions with which Dr. Hansberry has other financial
interests . . . which might conflict or constitute a conflict of
Dr. Mitchell A. Zaron, assistant health commissioner, also
served as a consultant to Shell Chemical, and owned Shell Oil stock.
He issued reports which purportedly showed Vapona as so safe that
it required no warnings for infants, or for old or sick persons. At a
meeting of the Public Health Service, he endorsed the use of
Vapona strips. John S. Leary, Jr., research division chief staff officer
for Pharmacology, overruled the department's objection to the
original Shell registration of Vapona, in 1963, and continued to
support the use of Vapona, until in 1966, when he resigned to join
Shell Oil Company. It is estimated there have been thousands of
victims each year suffering from exposure to Shell No Pest Strips.
Another pesticide, parathion, which was manufactured by
Monsanto and Bayer A. G., also has had baneful side effects. The
pesticide, malathion, used in Pakistan in 1976, poisoned 2,500
persons, many of whom died. And DDT, as we have noted, long
after its ban in the United States, continues to find a ready market
overseas, much to the profit of Mansanto, its producer.
In 1975, investigators found that two widely prescribed drugs,
Adactone and Flagyl, produced by G. D. Searle Company, caused
cancer in test animals. They had annual sales of $17.3 million. The
firm had given FDA fraudulent data and destroyed records of
tumors in mice caused by these drugs.
A Consumers Protective Message, issued from Washington
March 15, 1962, noted that since 1938, manufacturers had to
demonstrate the efficacy of a medicine to the government before
marketing it. However, the regulation contained a significant
loophole ~ there was no stated requirement for a demonstration of
its efficacy, or to furnish evidence that the drug "will live up to its
claim of its labeling." The Message stated, "There is no way of
measuring the needless suffering, the money innocently squandered
and the protraction of illnesses resulting from the use of such
In 1962, Congress enacted the Kefauver-Harris amendments
requiring evidence of efficacy. The evidence was to be
judged by the Food and Drug Administration Bureau of Medicine,
but the post of chief of that bureau was vacant because Bois-feuillet
Jones, special assistant for medical affairs at HEW, blocked the
appointment of Dr. Charles D. May, a distinguished physician who
had testified at the Kefauver hearings on the methods of the
pharmaceutical manufacturers in promoting prescription drugs. Dr.
May had testified that the payola and other promotions amounted to
three and a half times as much as the cost of all the educational
programs in our medical schools. Jones "won the confidence of the
pharmaceutical industry by blocking the appointment of Dr. May"
according to a report in Drug Research Reports, June, 1964.
Instead of Dr. May, Jones chose Dr. Joseph F. Sadusk, Jr. who did
everything he could to thwart the efficacy legislation, according to
testimony before the Senate Committee on Government Operations.
Sadusk later became a vice-president of Parke-Davis. Sadusk had
prevented the recall of Parke-Davis' antibiotic drug
Chloramphenicaol, which had resulted in blood toxicity and
leukopenia, before he was offered the vice-presidency of Parke-
Davis. He was succeeded as medical director of the FDA by Dr.
Joseph M. Pisani at the Bureau of Medicine. Pisani left to work for
the Proprietary Association of Drug Manufacturers. The next head
of the Bureau of Medicine later became a top executive at Hoffman
LaRoche. Dr. Howard Cohn, former head of the FDA medical
evaluation board, was offered a job at Ciba-Geigy which he
Dr. Harold Anderson, chief of the FDA drug division, was
given a job with Winthrop Drug Company. Morris Yakowitz found
that his experience at FDA made him eligible for a job at Smith
Kline and French drug firm. Allan E. Rayfield, who had been
director of Regulatory Compliance, accepted a position with
Thus we find that the revolving door has long been a
characteristic of government regulation of the pharmaceutical
industry. Surgeon General Leonard Scheele became president of
Warner-Lambert Research Labs; FDA Commissioner Charles C.
Edwards is now listed as senior vice-president of Becton Dickinson,
a large medical supply firm. Although it is hardly a household word,
it does one billion dollars a year in the medical field. Its chairman,
Wesley Howe, is founding chairman of the Health Industry
Manufacturers Association. FDA Commissioner James L. Goddard
became chairman of the board at Ormont Drug and Chemical
Company, whose president is George Goldenberg.
The previously mentioned Joseph Sadusk, the top physician at FDA,
after accepting a position as vice-president of Parke-Davis, later was
named its president.
One might think that these gentlemen had left FDA only to find
more pleasant working conditions, which were notably depressing at
FDA. Dr. Richard Crout, test director at the FDA Bureau of Drugs,
addressed the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association in 1976 as
follows: "There was open drunkenness by several employees which
went on for months . . . crippled by what some peopled called the
worst personnel in government. There was intimidation internally by
people, people tittering in corners, throwing spitballs; I am
describing physicians, people who would slouch down in a chair,
not respond to questions, moan and groan with sweeping gestures."
(from New England Journal of Medicine, May 27, 1976).
One may ask why a government department composed of
professionally educated scientists and physicians would tolerate
such working conditions. The answer is that that Medical Monopoly
wanted these conditions and saw to it that they prevailed at the
FDA, so as to drive away sincere, dedicated government servants
who wanted only to do their job, who desired to protect the public
from dangerous drugs. It seems that the most dangerous drugs are
also the most profitable, because they produce dramatic, easily seen
results. Unfortunately, they also tend to produce such dramatic side
effects as kidney and brain damage, or sudden death.
The drug manufacturers are adept at organizing influential
lobbying groups in Washington, of which the public remains
unaware. Some ninety-six companies, including Dow, Monsanto,
Hoffman LaRoche and many others put up five thousand dollars
each per year to support the Council of Agricultural Science and
Technology and the Institute of Food Technology, groups which
systematically mislead the public about the dangers of cancer causing
food additives. They are able to minimize and weaken the
frequent attempts by Congressmen to expose the dangers of many of
these additives. It is all part of the game of public relations.
In the 1950s, Senator Estes Kefauver was one of the nation's
most influential politicians. It seemed certain that he was headed for
the White House. However, due to a flood of complaints from his
constituents about the drug industry practices of gouging the elderly
and producing dangerous drugs, Kefauver scheduled comprehensive
hearings before the Senate on the widespread abuses committed by
the Medical Monopoly. He even called his Subcommittee, the
Senate Anti-Monopoly Subcommittee. These hearings, held during
1959 and 1960, revealed that Schering had markups of 1,118% on
its drug, predisone and that other drug manufacturers routinely
showed profits of from 10,000% to 20,000% on their drugs.
The outcome of these hearings was the government recommendations
for the promotion of "generic," or cheaper non-brand-name, drugs
for mass sales of the same drugs at cheaper prices. Ostensibly a
move to curb the excessive profits of the drug companies, the net
result was that these companies showed vast increases in their
volume of sales, with corresponding increase in profits. A more
tragic result was that these hearings proved to be Senator Kefauver's
political Waterloo. Stung by the publicity and the criticism which
resulted from the hearings, the word went out from the Medical
Monopoly, which we have shown, is not merely the officers and
employees visible to the public, but the shadowy figures in the
background, (many of them aliens, who control millions of shares in
these companies through the practice of "street names," concealing
their power), that "Kefauver is through."
When he inaugurated his campaign for the presidency, he found that
funds had mysteriously dried up. Without money, his candidacy was doomed.
Disconsolate, he abandoned his campaign for the White House and later died,
some said of a broken heart. Political figures got the message; there
have been no repeats of the Kefauver hearings on the abuses of the
drug industry. Individual products, such as the current furor over
aspartame, may come under Congressional scrutiny, but the overall
operations of the Drug Trust remain immune from Congressional
Meanwhile, the drug companies roar ahead with vast sales and
record profits on their new drugs. Squibb's Capoten, a hypertension
drug, could reach $900 million in sales this year, almost a billion
dollars from a single product! Merck expects Vesoten, another
hypertension drug, to reach $720 million in sales this year. In 1987,
Merck had thirteen products in eight therapeutic classes which
reached sales of more than $100 million each. Because of this high
volume, the cost of production had dropped steadily for the major
drug firms, an average of a 15% drop since 1980. In effect, this has
meant an increase in profits of 15% from this single factor.
In 1987, Syntex reported that 53% of its sales volume of $1.1
billion came from just two products, Noprosyn and Ahaprox.
Business Week, January 11, 1988, predicts "another gold mine for
U.S. Drugmakers." However, this gold mine would be nothing more
than another dry shaft were it not for the continuing increasing
prescription for these drugs to their patients by U.S. physicians. The
Medical Monopoly's weak link is that it is almost totally dependent
on doctors and hospital personnel to promote its profitable items.
The $18 to $20 million expenditure required to get a new drug
through the testing period of from three to twelve years is not
intended to protect the public from "dangerous" new drugs. It is
needed to protect the Drug Trust as long as possible, affording them
the necessary time to milk their present drugs for as much sales as
possible before they are replaced by newer competing drugs. It is
called "protecting market share" in the business world. It would be
called a violation of the anti-trust laws were the drug firms not
immune from prosecution under these statutes.
As the stock market slowly recovered from the well planned
and executed Black Monday, the stock market crash of October 19,
1987, the drug firms are more than holding their own, rewarding the
astute monopolists who bought in at the bottom of the market.
Typical of investment policies of insurance companies are those of
Equitable Life, which in 1987, had 7.8% of its assets invested in the
stock of drug manufacturers, including $13 million in Marion Labs,
$4 million in Merck, $7 million in Syntex and $4 million in Upjohn.
Another 5.8% of its investments were in the stock of the very
profitable hospital supply firms.
No chronicle of the world's important drug firms would be
complete without relating the connection between drug firms and
the world drug operation known as "Dope, Inc." It began with a
small group of international financiers, headquartered in London,
who officiated in the setting up of an "American" intelligence
service, which was initially known as the Office of Strategic
Services during World War II. This organization was set up under
the close supervision of the British Secret Intelligence Service and
was later disbanded by President Truman, who was highly
suspicious of its operations. The OSS then went underground at the
State Department as a "research group" working on "behavioural
It was led by one Evron Kirkpatrick, whose wife, Jeane
Kirkpatrick, is a director of the Rockefeller financed Trotskyite
group, League for Industrial Democracy and who is frequently
touted as "a great anti-Communist," the catch being that all good
Trotskyites are vehemently opposed to the Moscow branch of the
Communist Party. They still mourn the passing of their leader, Leon
Trotsky, who was murdered by a Stalinist agent in Mexico City in 1940.
The Kirkpatrick group then resurfaced as "the Central
Intelligence Agency," headed by Allen Dulles, a partner in the
Schroder Bank, the bank which had handled Adolf Hitler's personal
bank account. Dulles' brother, John Foster Dulles, was then
Secretary of State under President Eisenhower.
Whatever interest the CIA may have had in "intelligence," it
soon became clear that its primary interest was in the realization of
the enormous profits to be made in the international dope trade.
Because British fortunes in the early nineteenth century had been
founded in this trade, it was logical that the SIS operatives who set
up our OSS, later CIA, would have been programmed to go into this
business. It later became known by the inside sobriquet, "the
Company," meaning, of course, an enterprise in which one became
engaged for profit. The excuse advanced to justify going into this
business was that a "stingy" Congress refused to advance enough
money to the CIA to finance its covert operations; therefore a loyal
CIA agent would do whatever possible to aid "the Company" to
raise funds needed for this work. In fact, some of its most active
agents, such as Edwin Wilson, suddenly wound up owning six
million dollar estates in the developing area off the Washington
Beltway, a certain indication that there was indeed a lot of money
coming in from somewhere.
What is the present magnitude of the CIA world drug operation?
Lt. Col. Bo Gritz, who has thirty years of distinguished service with
the United States Army Special Forces, testified before the House Foreign
Affairs Committee International Narcotic Task Force that 900 tons of
heroin and opium would enter the free world in 1987, the source being
Southeast Asia and the Golden Triangle. Col. Gritz had been to Asia a number
of times to confer with one of Asia's largest drug producers, Khun Sa.
Khun Sa then laid the blame for the world drug operation squarely
at the door of some well known CIA operatives, including Theodore
Shackley, who served as chief of station for the CIA in Laos from
1965 to 1975.
Khun Sa stated that Shackley had worked closely with Mao Se Hung,
who was then the leading drug smuggler in Southeast Asia.
Another colleague of Shackley was a "civilian" named Santos
Trafficante. Trafficante had long been a leading figure in the Mafia
and had been called before Congress to testify
about a possible attempt on the life of Castro in Cuba. When the
Communist regime took over, the Mafia lost an empire of gambling
and prostitution in Havana and other cities. They sought revenge.
Trafficante was commissioned by Meyer Lansky, the Moneybags of
the Syndicate, to get rid of Castro. Whether the attempt failed, or as
is more likely, the Mafia came to an understanding with Castro
about the dope traffic, is not yet known. Trafficante then became
heavily involved in the Pacific area of the drug traffic, becoming a
go-between for the Nugan Hand operation, the drug bank in
Australia and the Golden Triangle.
Another prominent personality identified by Khun Sa and
others as active in the drug trade was Richard Armitage, whose drug
operations began during the Vietnam War. He later moved to the
U.S. Embassy in Bangkok. From 1975 to 1979, according to
witnesses, he used his embassy position to carry on drug operations.
He then left that post, establishing the Far East Trading Corporation
in Bangkok. Armitage was later appointed by President Reagan as
Assistant Secretary of Defense in charge of International Security
Affairs, reporting directly to the Secretary of Defense, Casper
Weinberger. Business tycoon Ross Perot then learned of Armitage's
history. He went to the White House, demanding that Armitage be
fired. He talked to George Bush, former head of the CIA, who gave
him the brush-off by sending him to FBI Director William Webster
(shortly afterwards, Webster was quietly appointed head of the
Webster refused to act on Perot's complaints, which opened
the door for his appointment to the CIA post. Meanwhile,
Weinberger, fearful that the role of the Defense Department in the
drug scandal was about to unfold, hastily resigned. He was
succeeded by Frank Carlucci, who was then serving as National
Security Advisor, and who was well versed in the entire operation.
Carlucci personally ordered Perot to drop his crusade against
Armitage. Because Perot's fortune had been built on huge
government contracts, he had no choice but to back off. Other
personages involved were General Richard Secord, who surfaced as
a figure in the Iran-Contra affair, who had boasted of flying plane
loads of gold to Southeast Asia to pay off the drug smugglers.
The daytime soap opera known as the Iran-Contra affair was
made to order for the secretive operatives of the CIA. They
delighted in leading the obtuse members of Congress on one wild
goose chase after another, while the real story remained untold. It
was chef's surprise, a culinary delight of drugs, the sale of arms to
belligerents, and money, well seasoned with political sauce, stirred
with various commitments to the State of Israel by leading
Washington politicians, and topped with luscious Swiss bank
In fact, the Iran Contra affair was the logical culmination
of the longtime involvement of the Rockefeller interests and the
Drug Trust in pro-Communist activity. John D. Rockefeller himself
had tucked the sum of $10,000 in cash into Leon Trotsky's pocket
before seeing him off to start the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
The Trotskyite Socialist Workers Party which was left behind to
subvert the United States, was operating under the name of the
Socialist Workers Party. It was then given the cover name of League
for Industrial Democracy. Thus the Drug Trust, while maintaining
the Stalinist Communist government in Russia, simultaneously
maintained a Communist backup regime in the United States, the
Trotskyite movement, in case the Stalinist regime should fall.
Noticeably irked by this competition, Stalin sent an agent Mexico to
eliminate his rival, whom he had previously exiled, realizing that
Trotsky was still too popular in Russia to be murdered there.
The Trotsky organization now had its political martyr. During
the 1950s, it quietly placed its members in power in the media, the
universities and the government, replacing, in most instances, the
incumbent Stalinist hardliners. The Stalinists in Washington who
had surrounded Roosevelt and Truman were gradually replaced with
"neoconservatives," that is, hard-line anti-Moscow ideologues, who
later added to their masquerade by additional and impressive noms
de plume, such as "the Hard Right," "the New Right," "the Religious
Right," or, in some instances, merely as "conservatives."
None other than the Hollywood man on the white horse, Ronald Reagan
rode into power in 1980 on a tide of "neoconservatism." His principal
backing came from the CIA, which by then was only a mouthpiece
for the neoconservatives, and its house organ, the National Review,
whose editor, William Buckley, boasted that the only job he had
ever had was with the CIA. Jeane Kirkpatrick, of the Rockefeller
financed League for Industrial Democracy, became the spokesman
for the new policy, while Reagan's entire team was dominated by
the Hoover Institution, whose two senior fellows, Sydney Hook and
Seymour Martin Lipset, were on the board of LID.
Thus David Rockefeller maintained close liaison with the Stalinist
Communists in Moscow, while other Rockefeller interests directed the
"anti-Communist" stance of the Reagan regime. It was a classic Hegelian
operation of thesis and antithesis, with the still unresolved synthesis
yet to come. The power of the LID lay in its domination of the CIA
and its total commitment to the State of Israel as the world
headquarters of the Trotskyite Communist movement.
Thus Elliott Abrams, son-in-law of the Israeli propagandist Norman
Podhoretz, who was editor of the American Jewish Committee organ,
Commentary, was appointed by Reagan to direct the Contra
operation in Nicaragua, a classic standoff between the Stalinist
regime in Managua and Trotskyite directed rebels in the hills.
The drug involvement in this operation should surprise no one,
because the Rockefeller interests, having established the American
Drug Trust, had long been active not only in ethical drugs but in
unethical ones as well.
The contra affair not only threatened to blow the lid off the Iran
Connection; it endangered the Israeli Connection, the Swiss
Connection, and the Rockefeller Connection as well. The
danger was averted by astute maneuvering of the docile
congressmen, and by adroit manipulation of the media to focus on
Col. Oliver North and Admiral Poindexter, to the exclusion of their
controllers. Thus a "crusade against Communism," a noble effort to
contain the Communists a la George Kennan, to be financed with
"dirty" money from the sale of drugs, was at last revealed to be the
same old crew of CIA agents peddling their drugs and laundering
their money in various parts of the world. (The present writer is now
researching a book which will document all of these operations.)
The CIA drug connection was not only deeply rooted in the
quest for easy profits, but also in the concurrent plan to achieve total
control over the people of the world by the masters of the Drug
Trust. Thus Bowart states, "The Cryptocracy is a brotherhood
reminiscent of the ancient secret societies, with rites of initiation and
indoctrination programs to develop in its loyal membership the
special understanding of its mysteries. It has secret codes and oaths
of silence which reinforce the sense of elitism necessary for the
maintenance of its strict loyalty." The present writer has described
some of these secret rites in "The Curse of Canaan."
The emphasis on drugs and experimentation which originated
with the German allopathic school of medicine, and which was
brought to this hemisphere by Illuminati initiates such as Daniel
Coit Gilman, was the first step in transforming the entire medical
practice of the United States from a patient-oriented, healing process
to a totally different approach, in which the patient became an
instrument to be manipulated for the benefit of various other
programs, mainly experimental science. This had been typified by
Dr. J. Marion Sims, the "mad doctor" responsible for setting up
what is now the Rockefeller controlled Memorial Hospital Sloan
Kettering Cancer Center in New York. This total commitment to
"Science" also guided and inspired the CIA drug programs, Projects
Bluebird, Artichoke, MK Ultra, and MK Delta, in which some 139
drugs were used on unsuspecting victims, the substances abused
including cannabis, LSD, Scopolamine, Sodium Amytal, Chloral
Hydrate (the knockout drops of the Old West), ergot, cocaine,
morphine and heroin.
The CIA drug story begins in 1943, when the organization was
still known as the OSS. A Dr. Albert Hoffmann was experimenting
in the Sandoz Laboratories in Switzerland (Sandoz was then
controlled by the Warburg family). Although Sandoz has been
manufacturing a substance known as LSD, or lysergic acid, since
1938, it had only been used in experiments with monkeys. A later
form of this substance, LSD-25, produced amazing psychotropic
effects, as Dr. Hoffmann accidentally discovered, when he absorbed
a small quantity of rye fungus, the base for the drug, while he was
This happened during August of 1943, at the height of the
Second World War. Dr. Hoffmann later reported, "There surged
upon me an uninterrupted stream of fantastic images of
extraordinary plasticity and vividness and accompanied by an
intense kaeleidoscopic-like play of colors ... I thought I was dying or
going crazy." This was the first "trip," the precursor of millions of
such experiences by drug cultists. By 1958, Dr. Hoffmann had
expanded his interests to Mexican mushrooms and mescaline, both
of which then became very popular among leading bankers in New
York, and among prominent Hollywood personalities.
At the time of the discovery of LSD, Allen Dulles was posted
in Switzerland, as though by precognition. It was under his
leadership that the CIA became transformed into the foremost
operation of Dope, Inc. He was then engaged in various activities
with officials of the Nazi regime. To this day, no one has been able
to ascertain whether he was trying to preserve the Hitler regime, or
to overthrow it. The most likely assumption is that he was trying to
preserve it to a point, lest the war end too soon for the profit-minded
munitions makers, but at the same time to prevent any sort of
victorious ending for his Nazi cohorts.
The notes of Gotterdammerung had already been sounded. Dulles'
association with the Hitler regime went back to a fateful meeting in
Cologne in 1933, when he and his brother, John Foster Dulles, assured
Hitler the money would be forthcoming to guarantee the fruition of his
goals as he had set them forth in "Mein Kampf." Allen Dulles later
became a director of the Schroder Bank, which handled Hitler's
personal bank account. Interestingly, enough, no one has ever been
able to trace one cent of Hitler's considerable personal fortune,
which he had received from the sale of his books and other income.
Unlike his opponent, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Hitler had no trust fund
from his mother (the proceeds from the China opium trade).
Dulles, as an international spymaster, would probably have
been aware of Dr. Hoffmann's experiments. After he had returned to
the United States and became director of the newly created CIA,
Dulles ordered 10 kg of LSD from Sandoz, the stated purpose being
"for use in drug experiments with animals and human beings. As
there are some 10,000 doses per gram, this meant that Dulles
ordered one hundred million doses of LSD.
Meanwhile, a Dr. Timothy Leary had been hired by the National Institute
of Health to experiment with psychedelic drugs, including LSD. Leary had
already been forced to resign from West Point, and was later fired
from the faculty at Harvard, perhaps the only person who could say
Leary's NIH study was financed by a grant from the Uris
Foundation of New York City. It continued from 1953 to 1956,
when it was moved to the U.S. Public Health Service, the
experiments going on until 1958, and also at HEW from 1956 to
1963. A CIA Memo dated November 1, 1963 featured glowing
accounts of the work of Dr. Leary and his associate, Dr. Richard
Alpert (who also was later fired from the staff at Harvard). They
invented the turn on, tune in, drop out movement which
incapacitated the youth of America for an entire generation.
The movement, in which the CIA always had a proprietary interest, was
given academic status when it was launched from the ivy-covered
halls of Harvard by Leary and his group. After their forced
departure from Harvard, they were ensconced in a million dollar
estate in New York by the wealthy Mellon heir, Tommy Hitchcock.
Their movement swept over the campuses of American universities
and destroyed the educational opportunities for thousands of
A later governmental investigation of the CIA, which was
chaired, naturally enough, by Nelson Rockefeller, made this
comment in its Rockefeller Report to the President on CIA
activities, "Beginning in the late 1940s, the CIA began to study the
properties of certain behaviour-influencing drugs ... all the records
concerning the program were ordered destroyed in 1973, including a
total of 152 separate files. CIA also contracted with the then Bureau
of Narcotics to have mind-influencing drugs given to unwitting
subjects in 'normal life-settings.' "
The above referred to several unfortunate incidents, in which
CIA employees, who had been given doses of LSD without their
knowledge, committed suicide under its malign influence. The
families of these victims learned many years later of the true
circumstances of these "suicides" and successfully sued the
government to obtain financial settlements.
Of the various CIA projects, the most notorious was MK Ultra.
These programs were supervised by another prototype of the "mad
doctor," a Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Despite the havoc wrought by his
activities, Dr. Gottlieb was never brought to trial. Indeed, the then
director of the CIA, Richard Helms, made certain that all records of
the MK Ultra operation were destroyed during his last days in
office, leaving Dr. Gottlieb immune to prosecution.
Dr. Gottleib, who has been described by observers as "a
pharmaceutical Dr. Strangelove," envisioned dosing entire
populations with hallucinogenic drugs. Influenced by his CIA
experiments, the U.S. Army contemplated a program of driving
whole populations insane with these drugs. Some 1,500 military
personnel were then given LSD in tests run by the Army Chemical
Corps, during the mid 1960s. Many of them suffered severe
psychological damage, the most terrifying symptoms appearing
The Army then moved on to testing a more powerful chemical
hallucinogen, which it called B.Z This drug was tested at
Edgewood Arsenal between 1959 and 1975. About 2,800 soldiers
were exposed to B.Z. Some of them have since lodged complaints
that they suffered irreparable damage from the experiment.
One of the peripheral results of the CIA drug program was the
assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the blame subsequently
being laid at the door of various groups, the CIA, the Mafia, the
Cuban Communists and others. The basis for these charges was that
all of them were deeply involved. To cover up the trail, some forty
people later died by violence.
Some of them were media writers, the most prominent being the late
Dorothy Kilgallen, a widely known columnist. In 1965 she used her connections
to get permission to interview Jack Ruby in his prison cell. She later told
friends that she had been able to obtain evidence that would "blow the J. F. Kennedy
case sky high."
Shortly afterwards, she was found in her apartment, dead of what
was later diagnosed as an "overdose" of barbiturates
and alcohol. The apartment was a shambles, and all of her notes of
her conversations with Ruby had disappeared. To this day, no one
has ever admitted seeing them. The Medical Monopoly then used
Kilgallen's death as an excuse to issue pious warning about "the
dangers of mixing barbiturates and alcohol" but said nothing about
the dangers of visiting Jack Ruby. Early in 1967, Ruby repeatedly
complained that he was being poisoned. He was then diagnosed as
having cancer, but he died of a "stroke," as did one of his
accomplices, David Ferrie.
The apparition of Dr. Sidney Gottlieb as the CIA's "mad
scientist" is eclipsed by the record of Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, who
epitomized the Hollywood version of the insane doctor
experimenting on helpless human subjects. Born in Scotland, Dr.
Cameron moved to the United States, where he became a citizen.
Although he carried on most of his medical work in Canada, he was
a resident of Lake Placid, New York. The basis for the two-country
operation may have been a desire to avoid lawsuits. In 1943, Dr.
Cameron received a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to set up
a new psychiatric institute, the Allen Memorial Institute, as a wing
of the Royal Victorian Hospital, the teaching hospital of McGill
University in Montreal.
This Rockefeller connection later resulted in some $10 million of CIA
money being channeled to Cameron through Dr. Gottlieb as part
of the MK Ultra project. This money was transferred to Dr. Cameron
beginning in 1953, because he had already demonstrated
his commitment to mind-altering experiments.
The CIA funds were therefore marked for mind control.
Dr. Cameron had come to the favorable attention of the
Rockefeller interests after he invented some of the most terrifying
"psychiatric" techniques ever known. He invented a process called
"depatterning" as well as a later technique called "psychic driving,"
either of which would have done credit to any Communist brain
"Depatterning" began with heavy drug dosages, combined with
electric shock, the then popular Electro Convulsive Therapy,
or ECT, as it was usually known. It was later discredited
for years because of the damage to the patients, but, incredibly, has
now been revived and is in constant use in some circles.
ECT has been described by its victims as the most terrifying ordeal
which can be imagined. Basically, it was simply the electrocution
process which was shut off just before it became fatal. The patient was
strapped into a chair and electrocuted two or three times a day.
Initially, depatterning was limited to the heavy drug dosages,
over a period from fifteen to thirty days; this part of the program
was called "sleep therapy."
A "sleep cocktail," which itself was worthy of the imagination of a
Dr. Frankenstein, consisted of 100 mg of Thorazine, 100 mg of
Nembutal, 100 mg of Seconal, 150 mg of Vernonal and 100 mg.
of Phenergan, any one of which would be enough to put any
patient to sleep. The sleep cocktail was administered to the patient
three times a day. Later in the sleep therapy treatment,
the patient was awakened two or three times a
day to receive the electric shock treatments.
Dr. Cameron ignored the recommended voltage for shock treatments,
increasing them twenty to forty times higher than any other doctor
had ever dared. He watched approvingly as the helpless patients screamed
constantly during the electro-shock "therapy." It was his fond belief
that the screams also were an essential part of the treatment,
although it is likely that it represented his personal gratification.
The next step in depatterning, which was also one of the
weirder Cameron inventions, was "sensory isolation," in which the
patient was placed in a large box, with his eyes padded and his ears
plugged. After some thirty days of the Cameron depatterning
treatment, the patient was reduced to a helpless zombie. Satisfied
that he had purged the patient of all previous images and ideas, Dr.
Cameron moved into the next phase, which he called "psychic
driving." This consisted of forcing the patient to listen to tape-recorded
messages, repeated over and over, thousands of times. This
"treatment" was administered through pillow speakers or
headphones. Every intelligence agency in the world was green with
envy when they heard of the new Cameron techniques. Luckily, the
CIA had been the first on the scene, and provided him with ample
funds for his lunatic obsessions.
Born in 1901 near Glasgow, Cameron had studied at the
University of London, where he may have picked up some of his
strange ideas. It is also likely that he became involved with some
cult in London, which featured such monstrous ideas. After all,
Mary Shelley had written Frankenstein in that very milieu.
Throughout his activities in Canada, the CIA Technical Services and
the Staff Chemical Division enthusiastically funded his work.
Honors poured in on him, as word spread about his "innovative"
techniques. He became chairman of the Canadian Psychiatric
Association, chairman of the American Psychiatric Association, and
founding chairman of the World Psychiatric Association.
After Dr. Cameron's death in 1967, the CIA found itself
besieged by some of the survivors of his victims. In the most
advanced stages of MK Ultra, he had experimented on some 53
people. This group included some prominent Canadians. An action
was finally brought by Harry Weinstein, whose father Louis had
been a leading Montreal businessman. Another victim was Velma
Orlikon, wife of a Democratic Party Member of the Canadian
Parliament. Despite these pedigrees, the victims found themselves
up against a stone wall. The Washington Post noted in January,
1988, that the CIA was still fighting the action of nine elderly
Canadians who had been drugged during the 1950s and who were
asking $175,000 each in damages, later increased to $1,000,000
The case was then ordered to trial, after nine years of delaying
tactics by the CIA, but no one is predicting a speedy solution.
During the Cameron era, the CIA continued its own
experiments in the United States. They enlisted the services of a
narcotic operator, George Hunter White, and set him up in an
apartment in Greenwich Village. He was given a cover identity as
an artist and a seaman, who met people at parties or in bars and
lured them back to the apartment. The CIA money had transformed
the seedy apartment into an espionage apparatus complete with two way
mirrors, surveillance and recording equipment and other tools
of the trade. White dosed his visitors with LSD, while the CIA
equipment meticulously recorded their reactions. These frequently
consisted of "bad trips" in which the victims went temporarily
insane, tried to commit suicide or murder and gave other evidences
of the "mind control" which the CIA wished to learn.
To avoid exposure from complainants, the CIA transferred
White to San Francisco, where he was given the run of two more
CIA pads. He then initiated Operation Midnight Climax. Drug
addicted prostitutes were paid to pick men up in local bars and bring
them back for an orgy which featured drinks heavily laced with
LSD. The ensuing action was taped and photographed in every
detail, although the results are not likely to be made available to the
Library of Congress.
Despite the excesses to which doctors such as Dr. Cameron and
Dr. Sims went in their scientific enthusiasm, there are horror stories
equally disturbing from the clinical experiments conducted by the
ethical drug companies. With hundreds of millions in dollars of
potential profits riding on each new drug product, the Medical
Monopoly must comply with the regulations which they themselves
have drafted and put into place. The purpose of the regulations is to
protect the market share of a new wonder drug until it can be
replaced by a newer wonder drug. As one alternative health care
practitioner, who had been sent to prison for selling herbal teas,
remarked, "A wonder drug is a drug that you take and then you
wonder what it's going to do to you."
The restrictions on new drugs are usually complied with if the
manufacturer believes it may be a big money maker. He is not about
to release a new drug to the market, have it meet with success and
then be forced to recall it because he has not complied with all of
the regulations. From 1948 to 1958, pharmaceutical companies
introduced 4,829 new products, 3,686 new compounds and 1,143new dosages.
All of these products had to go through the process.
New drugs are reported to take an average time of from seven to ten
years to receive final FDA approval, a process which costs from ten
to twelve million dollars, frequently as much as eighteen to twenty
million. Clinical testing goes through three clearly defined phases.
Phase I calls for the testing of the new drug on a small number of
Phase II requires that "volunteers" take the drug during a two year
Phase III calls for more diverse clinical testing on from one thousand
to three thousand patients over a three year period.
This means that doctors and hospitals administer the drug only because
the Phase II testing has established its toxicity and other possible side effect
ts. These are generally patients who are in a position to sue or generate
unfavorable publicity if the drug proves to be dangerous,
which means that those who prescribe the drug are relying o
n the Phase II testing to recommend it as reliable.
Phase II, in which the drug is tested on human beings, generally
requires a captive population. The drugs are sometimes tested
secretly in schools, hospitals and mental institutions, but the
pharmaceutical manufacturers usually prefer to rely on a much safer
test population, those confined to our prisons, because they are
unlikely to complain. Even inmates of mental institutions have been
known to complain, after their release, that they were subjected to
illegal drug testing. Prisoners who have been convicted of crimes
are less likely to complain. Since the turn of the century, the United
States has led the world in the number of medical experiments
carried on in prisons.
The law-abiding citizen might think that it is all right to
conduct medical experiments on prisoners, even though a number of
German doctors were executed for just such an offense. Drug testing
might be one way in which the prisoner could repay his debt to
society. However, the reality of the situation today is that, although
there are many criminals confined in our prisons, there are also
increasing numbers of Americans sent to prisons for political
offenses. These political prisoners run the same risks in medical
experiments as do the most hardened criminals. Each year, a larger
number of sentences are handed down by American courts as
punishment for banking problems, mortgage problems or tax
Because of the Medical Monopoly's control of the media, the
use of prisoners in medical experiments rarely comes to the
attention of the American people. An exhaustive search of magazine
indexes from 1900 to the present day reveals only a few such
stories, which were uniformly favorable to the experiments. The
prisoners themselves have little media access, unless they riot and
bring the cameramen in in force, with the full top story treatment.
The American Medical Association is still the leading advocate of
using prisoners for drug testing. The columnist, Pertinax, writing in
the British Medical Journal, January 1963 commented, "I'm
disturbed that the World Medical Association is now hedging on its
clause about using criminals as experimental material. The AMA
influence has been at work on its suspension. At the tenth meeting,
American scientists joked about it. One of the nicest American
scientists I know was heard to say 'Criminals in our prisons are fine
experimental material ~ and much cheaper than chimpanzees'."
The scientist was not making a bad joke ~ chimpanzees cost as
much as $4500 each, while American prisoners can be had for as
little as one dollar a day. Pertinax was commenting on the proposal
made by the World Medical Association in 1961, and offered for
adoption, that "prisoners, being captive groups, should not be used
as the subjects of experiments." The proposal was vociferously
objected to by delegates from the American Medical Association
and it was finally tabled.
If this smacks somewhat of the crimes of "Nazi doctors" and
their experiments on prisoners, the coincidence is not accidental.
The accused physicians testified in their own defense that they were
merely following practices of long standing in the United States. At
one trial, in 1947, 515 German doctors were tried at Nuremberg,
indicted on the charge that they had conducted experiments on
prisoners. They entered evidence in their defense that in 1906,
American doctors in Philadelphia had used convicts for medical
experiments, injecting them with plague and beri beri germs; in
1915, pellagra was injected into convicts in Massachusetts; in 1944,
hundreds of prisoners in the United States were injected with
malaria under the excuse of wartime necessity, to aid our soldiers in
the Pacific. Despite this defense, the German doctors were convicted
and some of them were executed.
The subject surfaced again with the recent publication of
Robert Jay Lufton's book, "Nazi Doctors," one of the series of books
about Nazis which pour from American presses in an ever-increasing
stream, obeying the dictum that anything sells in the
United States if a swastika is emblazoned on the cover. The book
resulted in a spirited discussion in the Letters page of the New York
Times Sunday Book Review. Bruno Bettelheim had originally
reviewed the book, asserting that the effort to understand the Nazi
doctors was wrong, "because of the ever-present danger that
understanding fully may come close to forgiving." Christians, of
course, offer forgiveness as a basic religious precept.
Paul Ramsey wrote to include an excerpt from an advertisement,
“Professor McCance and the members of the Medical Research
Department want to be informed, if and when children are born in lying-in
homes and women's wards in hospitals afflicted with Meningocele
or similar abnormalities, which will make it unlikely that the
children will survive longer than a short time. Professor McCance
and his department wish to make some experiments on these
children, which will give them no sorts of pains, but they feel not
entitled to make these experiments on normal, healthy children.
When the birth of these children comes to be known, Professor
McCance is to be informed at once by telephone."
Mr. Ramsey noted that this advertisement appeared in an
American publication in 1946, while the German doctors were on
trial. Telford Taylor, the American prosecutor at the Nuremberg
trials, wrote to the Times to correct errors which had already
appeared, including the statement that one of those sentenced was
"Edwin Katzenellenbogen, who at one time had been a member of
the faculty at Harvard Medical School.'' Taylor stated that no one by
the name of Kazenellenbogen had ever been tried at Nuremberg.
Indeed, the name seems to have been included as an elaborate
practical joke, the name having surfaced in previous practical jokes.
The Times made no apology. Telford Taylor further pointed out that
twenty physicians had been tried at Nuremberg in the instance
mentioned, not nineteen as stated in the review, and that four were
hanged, five sentenced to life in prison, three received lesser
sentences and seven were acquitted on all charges."
Large scale medical experimentation, similar to that which was
condemned as a crime at Nuremberg at the same time that it was
still being practiced in American prisons, takes undue advantage of
the "volunteers." Some are illiterate; most are young and healthy
and have never had any serious illness. They have little concept of
what it may be like to come down with a serious illness as a result of
being injected with experimental drugs, or the lifelong
complications which may result.
In 1963, Time magazine ran an expose of large scale programs
which federal government officials had established in our prisons.
These vast testing programs were justified as being part of the "war
on cancer'' which Bobst and the Laskers had launched from the
White House. The doctors were injecting prisoners with live cancer
cells and with blood from persons suffering from leukemia. Several
doctors in Oklahoma were grossing three hundred thousand dollars a
year from drug manufacturers in these deals; these doctors also
regularly collected blood from prisoners, paying them $7 a quart;
they then sold the blood for $15.
During the 1940s, when the first stories about the use of
prisoners in medical experiments began to receive some circulation,
the American Medical Association requested Governor Dwight of
Illinois to scotch the stories. He whitewashed the experiments by
appointing Morris Fishbein and other AMA leaders to a committee
which solemnly "investigated" the programs and returned with
glowing reports. Fishbein himself came back from Stateville
Penitentiary to describe the prisoner experiments as "ideal, because
of their conformity with ethical rules." Fishbein elaborated his
enthusiasm by pointing out that the program rendered a genuine
service to the entire public because of the "reformation v
alue in serving as a subject in a medical experiment."
One might have expected Fishbein to appear at Nuremberg, to defend
the German doctors with the same argument, that they had offered this same
"reformation value" to the inmates of the concentration camps. A
public relations spokesman for Wyeth laboratories was puzzled by
the indignation in some quarters, releasing a statement that "Almost
all of our Phase II testing is done on prisoners."
In fact, there was fierce and ongoing competition among the
major drug firms to line up prisoners who could be used as
"subjects" in medical experiments. Upjohn and Parke-Davis adhered
to established principles of monopoly when they acquired
"exclusive rights" to the inmates of Jackson State Prison in
Mississippi. These firms subsequently were able to enroll 1,200 of
the 4,000 convicts there in the testing program. Business Week
offered a somewhat critical comment on the program, pointing out
that "tests at the prison are designed primarily to measure the
toxicity of the drug rather than its efficiency . . . doses are built up
gradually to the point where adverse reactions occur."
In plainer English, the dosage was increased until it made the prisoner
so ill or caused serious damage. The results often were crippling or death.
However, the prisoners were paid thirty cents a day for submitting
to these experiments. Business Week touched upon the fact that it
was precisely the life-threatening aspect of Phase II testing for
which the prisoners were needed. The pharmaceutical companies
needed to know how many people might be injured by the drug, or
how many lawsuits they might expect from angry customers.
The drug testing programs were welcomed by prison officials,
who maintained ancient buildings dating back to the Civil War to
house the prisoners, while they built themselves monumental new
administration offices and other perquisites of the trade. In 1971, the
New York State Prison System spent $5,500 a year for each prisoner
in the system, of which 72 cents a day went for food, and 15 cents a
day for clothing and other amenities. Of the budgeted $17 a day per
prisoner, less than a dollar a day went for his physical maintenance.
This was an essential part of a prison system which had been set up
the Boss Tweed and which still offered many golden opportunities
to those who were alert.
Only a few stories leaked out to the public during these postwar
years. Prisons are closed systems and investigative reporters are
rarely welcomed. One of the most horrifying, which would have
shamed any Nazi doctor, came from Vacaville State Prison in
California. Extensive testing programs had been carried out here for
A few of the prisoners were paid $15 a month, but most of
them received only a dollar a day. The victims reported an alarming
list of results, such as heart damage, loss of hair, joint pains,
swelling of the legs, shortness of breath and hemorrhages of the
skin. One testing outfit, under the name of the Solano Institute for
Medical and Physical Research, actually was able to set up its
headquarters at the prison. Established as a nonprofit corporation
under the California charitable trust law, the "Institute" subjected
1,500 prisoners to various types of injections. One prisoner who had
been sent to Vacaville for "treatment" later sued the doctor, a
leading dermatologist who was head of his professional association.
The prisoner had been forced to take muscular injections of
Lederle's Caridase drug. This drug contained fibrinolytic enzymes
which were intended for use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The
patient testified that he had been seized by trustees and held while
he was forcibly injected in both arms. He subsequently developed a
near-fatal disease of the muscles and chronic stomach ulcers, while
his weight dropped from 140 pounds to a mere 75 pounds. He
received four dollars in compensation.
The King of the Prison Experiments was one Dr. Austin
Stough. He had initiated contracts with the nation's largest
pharmaceutical manufacturers to carry out drug testing at a number
of prisons in three southern states, Alabama, Arkansas and
Oklahoma. The program, to test blood plasma, at its peak involved
137 prisons from 1963 to 1970 and was paid for by 37 drug
companies, including such leading firms as Upjohn, Wyeth, Lederle,
Squibb and Merck. Although the financial rewards were impressive,
the results of the program proved inconclusive. The program was
later criticized as operating under "gross mismanagement, sloppy
handling and contamination" of test samples, criticism which put an
end to the program. Hundreds of prisoners suffered from its after
effects for years. Stough had set up a prison monopoly which
brought in good returns until his methods were exposed as being
Despite the dramatic implications of the drug testing stories,
they met with thunderous silence from the "bleeding hearts" of the
nation's media, perhaps because publicity about these programs
might have raised conjecture as to why German doctors had been
executed for the same practices. A survey of Readers Guide, the
index to magazine articles printed throughout the United States,
showed that from 1945 to 1970, during the height of the testing
programs in the prisons, there were only three stories about it during
this entire period.
The first, a heart warming story in Coronet, November 1950,
was titled "Prison Heroes Conquer Malaria," a glowing account
of experiments conducted at the Illinois State Prison at Joliet,
where Dr. Fishbein himself had been overwhelmed
by the "ethical" nature of the drug testing program.
The second story, in the Saturday Evening Post, March 2, 1963, was
titled "Convict Volunteers." It too was an uncritical account of the drug
experimenters, describing the prisoners as "human guinea pigs." The
journalist quoted one convict, who was deliberately burned on both
arms, "The pain was pretty bad," and mentioned other prisoners who
had been injected with live cancer cells. Despite the fact that this
story, written about inmates at the Ohio State Prison in Columbus,
mentioned that these convicts did not receive any pay for submitting
to these experiments (Ohio statutes piously forbid such payments,
saving the drug companies even more money), the writer ends his
article with a glowing tribute to the program, pointing out that it
caused "the volunteers to feel self-respect."
The third story, in Business Week, June 27, 1964, noted that the
drug companies were able to save many millions of dollars by using
the prisoners for drug experiments.
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